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The Glenn Negley Collection 
of Utopian Literature 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 with funding from 
Duke University Libraries 




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-A Dream of the- 

United States of the Americas 

n 1999 


Ex-Vice Consul-General of America at 

Port-au-Prince, Hayti 

Copyright 1809, by 
Arthur Bird. 

Press of 

L. C. Childs & Son, 

Utica, N. V. 


THE author respectfully submits it as his 
firm and immovable conviction, that 
the United States of America, in years to 
come, will govern the entire Western Hemi- 

The Stars and Stripes which never knew, 
nor ever will know defeat, will, in years to 
come, gather under its protecting folds, 
every nation- and every island in this hemi- 

It is a duty we Americans owe to the re- 
publics of Central and South America to 
give them the benefits of our pacific govern- 
ment, the rule of the People, by and for 
the People, exemplified in the great Consti- 
tution of the United States of America. 

America has to-day an inviolable Monroe 
Doctrine. Any attempt on the part of 
Europe to violate the spirit or letter of that 
wise doctrine, would be promptly resented 
by America. 

Our American flag already protects and 
defends every republic in the Americas. 
How many years will it require to convince 



the Centra] and South American Republics 
that their security and path of safety is to 
come under the flag that already protects 
them ? 

The purpose of this book is to clearly es- 
tablish this important fact in the mind of 
every patriotic American. Our glorious, 
starry banner will rule the entire Western 
Hemisphere. It will be the emblem of 
Peace, Liberty and Civilization, floating 
over a united America from Alaska to Pata- 
gonia. This is America's Destiny. 

In setting forth this great truth the 
author has avoided the well beaten paths 
and dusty roads travelled by writers from 
the days of the Deluge up to the hour of 
going to press, and it is to be hoped that the 
reader, now and then, may find some re- 
freshing scenery along his pathway. 

If this book serves to stimulate patriotic 
pride and strengthen respect for our liberty- 
loving flag, it then will not have been writ- 
ten in vain. 

Most respectfully submitted, 

The Author. 


A Dream of 



chapter i. 
The American Colossus. 

A Dream of Magnificent Expansion. America be- 
comes the Mightiest Nation of the World and ex- 
tends her Domain from Alaska to Patagonia. 

GAUGED by certain standards and 
viewed from certain standpoints, a 
mere century is but a brief compass of time. 

From an individual point of view, in the 
daily routine of life, a century appears to 
be an embryo-eternity. When time is 
gauged with clock like precision and to each 
minute is allotted its full value, a century 
assumes an unfathomable depth. But, in 
the cycles of time, a century is a mere foot- 
print in the passage of time ; a small link 
in the endless chain of eternity. 

Time is easily annihilated by mental pro- 


cess. Witness the feat performed by Ma- 
homet, related in a certain chapter of the 

„ , Koran. The faithful are 

ilahomet . f , . ,,. 

intormed in this passage 

on of the Koran that the 

Rapid Transit. p r0 phet was awakened 
one morning from a deep, refreshing slum- 
ber by an angel and was summoned into 
Paradise to confer with Allah. While in 
the act of ascending to Heaven, Mahomet's 
foot struck and upset a pitcher of water 
which stood near the couch. The Koran 
unblushingly proclaims that the Prophet 
held 999 long conferences with Allah and 
had safely returned to his couch, ready for 
another snooze, before the water in the fall- 
ing pitcher had time to spill on the floor ! 

There is something very refreshing in this 
narrative. It shows that Mahomet was 
well up in rapid transit matters and again 
it proves the sublime virtue of a man, a son 
of the desert, a turbaned Washington, who 
couldn't tell a lie and who resisted the temp- 
tation to make this batch of conferences 
with Allah an even thousand. Mahomet 
missed his calling ; he ought to have been 
a newspaper reporter. 

Assuming the prerogatives of the Koran, 
the author, at one stroke of his pen, pro- 
poses to annihilate time. Plunged into a 
profound slumber he had a dream. Great 
men and little men ; the renowned and the 
ignorant ; the philosopher and the Austra- 
lian bushman ; quakers and cannibals ; the 


prince and the peasant, all these and my- 
riads of others, have had their dreams. 
Love's dream has been the theme of all ages, 
the burden of songs untold. The dream of 
conquest, the dream of ambition and dreams 
of every human passion and desire have 
throbbed within the human brain. 

But the author's dream is not swayed by 

human emotions ; it is not the handmaid of 

America's passion. It is a dream 

Giant Republic, that unseals the book of 

the future and reveals to 

the world the colossal, 

peace-loving, giant republic of the universe 

in the year of our Lord, 1999, 

The United States of the Americas, tne 
mightiest nation ever known in contempo- 
raneous history. 

It is related that at a national anniversary 
celebration dinner, held a few years ago, in 
the classic regions of Chicago, while the 
toasts were being dissected, a guest arose 
and proposed to "Our Country," — the 
United States of America, bounded on the 
north by Canada ; on the south by the Gulf 
of Mexico ; on the east by the Atlantic and 
on the west by the Pacific Ocean. An- 
other gentleman arose and protested warmly 
against the narrow limits as ascribed 
to our beloved country. ' ' Let us, " he con- 
tinued, "drink to the prosperity of the 
United States of America, — bounded on the 
north by the North Pole ; on the south by 
the Antarctic Region ; on the east by the 


first chapter of the Book of Genesis and on 
the west by the Day of Judgment." 

At the fin-de-siecle of the twentieth cen- 
tury, in the year of our Lord, 1999, the 
United States of the Americas were virtually 
bounded as above related. The compara- 
tively small segment of territory known and 
officially recognized in 1899 as the United 
States of America, still retained in 1999 its 
predominant importance, yet this territory 
in the twentieth century became only a 
small fraction of an integral whole. In 
1899, compared with its neighbors, the 
United States of America appeared like a 
whale by the side of little fishes,— a large 
loaf compared with which its neighbor- 
nations in Central and South America re- 
sembled little biscuits, — half baked at that. 

In 1999 the little fishes were glad to come 
to the great American whale for protection 
and become a part of our grand union . 
Our glorious and ever-victorious banner re- 
mained precisely the same in 1999, as it 
must ever remain for centuries yet unborn, 
the pride of America and the glory of the 
world. The stripes on our noble flag were 
still red and white alternately ; the only 
difference was in the number of the stars 
on the field of blue ; they had increased 
from forty-five to eight-five and Old Glory 
proudly waved in 1999 over one mighty 
united republic from Baffin's Bay to the 
straits of Magellan. 

Place in your hand an acorn. Pause as 


you gaze upon it, consider the mighty giant 
which slumbers within its bosom. It is 
only an acorn, — a mere pigmy. Plant it ; 
watch it as it develops into a mighty, tower- 
ing oak, which, in its majesty of strength 
seems to bid defiance to the very heavens. 
Beneath its massive branches and grateful 
shade the weary traveller may pause to rest 
his limbs and seek refuge from the heat of 

Our pilgrim fathers were the "acorns" 

of the colossal republic known in 1999 as 

Commenced the United States of the 

Americas. Little did they 

on a , , / 

c 11 c 1 those pure and sturdy 

fathers, dream that from 
their loins would spring the greatest and 
grandest government descended to men since 
the promulgation of the Decalogue. From 
small beginnings, great ends may often be 
accomplished. The avalanche that rolls 
and thunders down the mountain side, 
sweeping before it forests and boulders, be- 
gins business in a very small way. A little 
handful of snow starts the uproar but be- 
fore its headlong career has terminated, the 
very mountain itself trembles beneath the 
mad rush. 

So it was with that splendid political 
structure, known in 1999 as the United 
States of the Americas. Its humble origin 
was easy traceable to Plymouth Rock. 
From the landing of the pilgrims to the 
close of the nineteenth century, the rapid 


growth of the Federal States left nothing to 
be desired. But in the nineteenth century 
America was still an acorn, from which a 
mighty oak was to be reared in 1999, a tree 
under whose branches were sheltered in one 
mighty republic all the territory from Hud- 
son's Bay to Cape Horn. 

In the year of our Lord 1999 the world 
gazed with an admiration, akin to awe, up- 
Eighty=five on tne rnagnificient spec- 
States tacle presented by the 

. .. ... United States of the 

in the Union. . . , , 

Americas, a colossal re- 
public, embracing eighty-five states, bounded 
on its northern apex by the states of Alaska, 
East andWest Canada, while the state of Pat- 
agonia guarded the extreme south of the 
American giant, including all islands of the 
seas lying in the Western Hemisphere, be- 
tween the Arctic and Antarctic regions. 

It frequently happens that the insignifi- 
cant child of to-day, soon becomes, by rea- 
son of growth and intellectual force, the 
leader of the family, a tower of might and 
strength in their midst, one to whom they 
look for counsel and protection. 

So it was with America, the Child of 
Destiny. In 1776 America was a mere in- 
fant, attached to the breast of a harsh, un- 
loving mother. By leaps and bounds this 
American infant budded into childhood, and 
in the year of 1899 had already become a 
busy, good-natured youth, whose prowess, 
industry and great future already command- 


ed the respect of the world. In 1899 the 
western hemisphere was politically divided 
into independent republics, with the minor 
exception of certain European dependencies, 
belonging to England, France and Den- 
mark. The United States in the year last 
named was universally regarded as a prod- 
igy in the family of nations. Its magni- 
ficent resources and its expanding indus- 
tries ; its keen inventive genius ; its limit- 
less agricultural wealth ; 
A Big Fellow, its absolute liberty and 

Decidedly. entire freedom from mil- 
itarism, challenged the 
envy as well as the admiration of the world, 
while the naval and military prowess of the 
young American Republic, evidenced in the 
Spanish -American unpleasantness of 1898, 
exacted from other nations a wholesome 
and enduring respect. 

Such, in brief, was the condition of 
America in 1899. Little indeed was the 
popular mind prepared for the extraordin- 
ary developments and the remarkable series 
of events that brought about in 1999 the 
creation of the United States of the Ameri- 
cas. In that memorable year all of the in- 
dependent republics of Central and South 
America had joined our union and were 
governed under the great Constitution of 
1776, which is and always will be, the most 
inspiring document that ever issued from 
the pen of man, one that will continue 
to bless mankind as long: as the sun re- 


tains its power and the earth gives forth its 

How did all this happen ? The Dream 
furnishes the solution. Read on. 

chapter ii. 
Under The Eagle's Wing. 

The Mighty Oregon and the Little Yankee Schooner 
met on the high seas. "Let us keep together 
for mutual protection." Mexico the first repub- 
lic to join our union. The Central and South 
American Republics all stampede for the shelter 
of the great American Eagle. Peru joins our 
union in 1921, Venezuela in 1925, Canada comes 
stumbling along in 1930. 

EVERY American patriot recollects with 
feelings of pride and admiration the 
great voyage of the U. S. battleship 
Oregon, the noblest floating citadel of the 
nineteenth century, during the spring of 
the year 1898, from the Golden Gate to 
Jupiter, Florida, a distance of over 14,000 
miles. With only live first-class battleships 
to its credit, it was of paramount importance 
for the U. S. government to secure the 
services of the Oregon to join in the vol- 
canic welcome that awaited the arrival of 
Admiral Cervera's squadron in the Carib- 
bean sea. 

The memory of that eventful voyage will 
remain vivid in the recollections of more 
than one generation. After the noble 
vessel had rounded the turbulent waters of 
Magellan and her stout prow pointed north, 
anxiety for her safety increased at every 
knot she covered. The Spanish phantom, 
at that critical period of the war, looked 



like a towering mountain, an elevation, 
however, which was designed to be soon 
transformed, by subsequent events, into a 

One bright afternoon, while steaming in 

latitude 30 south and in longitude 40 

A Saucy west, shortly before 

Little touching at Rio Janerio, 

Yankee Craft. the s . reat ? fi re K° n S P oke 
an insignificant, one- 
masted little schooner, a mere shell, tossing 
upon South Atlantic billows, with a crew 
of two men. The fact that the diminutive 
sail boat proudly unfurled at her mast- 
head the glorious flag of America, was the 
sole feature, in her case, that saved her 
from utter insignificance. The Oregon 
displayed signals, asking the captain of the 
little vessel if he had spoken any Spanish 
war-vessels adding, as a matter of informa- 
tion, that war had been declared be- 
tween Spain and the United States of 

It happened that this was the first inti- 
mation the captain of the schooner had re- 
ceived that a state of war existed between 
the two countries above named. In reply 
he promptly signalled to the Oregon that he 
had not seen any Spanish men-of-war, and, 
being somewhat of a Yankee humorist, 
added, that if war had been declared, the 
best thing that they could do would be 
"to keep together for mutual protection." 

This anecdote of the recontrc of the Ore- 



gon and the tiny schooner illustrates aptly 
the conditions that ruled in 1999 and during 
several preceding decades. In that year 
was witnessed a grand union of all the peo- 
ples of the Western Hemisphere under the 
starry banner of America. The little. Re- 
publics of Central and South America were 
heartily glad to seek the protection of the 
Great Leviathan of the North, and, gath- 
ered into one great Republic, The United 
States of the Americas, they stood together 
one and indivisible, "for mutual protec- 

In 1999 the world beheld the imposing 
spectacle of a United America, a nation in 
magnitude and power that eclipsed any 
previously known confederation of States, 
invincible in war and unrivalled in arts, 
sciences and industry. The Americas were 
all under the protection of the same stars 
and stripes, employing the same legal ten- 
der and coinage and in 1999 the English 
tongue had been adopted officially by every 
Central and South American State. 

The first Republic that knocked at our 

gates for admission into the grand union of 

.. . the Americas, was Mex- 

Mexico T ,1 

ico. In the year 1520, 
makes the ,, c ■, J , 

the Spaniards, under 

First Break. Cortes, that valiant and 
most intrepid of Castillian warriors, had 
already crushed that most dreaded of all 
barbarian monarchs, Montezuma, and had 
reduced the Aztec Empire into vassalage 


and slavery. In 1898, by a series of the 
most brilliant victories, American prowess 
and arms, coupled with dare-devil bravery 
and resolute fighting, had in turn driven 
out the Spanish hordes from the Amer- 
icas. With this turn in the tide of 
history, nothing could be more fitting than 
the incorporation of Mexico as a State in 
our Federal Union. Could they have wit- 
nessed our brilliant American victories 
against Spain in 1898, Montezuma and his 
Aztec warriors would have arisen from their 
graves and shouted for joy at the knowledge 
that at last their wrongs at the hands of 
Spain had been avenged by the sword of 
America and their Spanish oppressors of 
1520 had at last been hurled back to the 
Castillian haunts from whence they had 
emerged under Columbus and Cortes. 

Mexico added a new star to our flag in 
1 9 1 2, just one hundred years after England 
and America crossed swords. These 
swords have been sheathed in their scab- 
bards, never again in the word's history to 
be unsheathed against one another. 

As early as the year 1 899 the desire to 

join our American Union began to manifest 

. . . itself. In that year the 

Awakening ,.,., . , , , J , 

little island of Jamaica 

of the already had under ad- 

Amencas. visement the question of 

joining the American Union, and the peo- 
ple of Jamaica were seriously agitating the 
matter. They regarded this step as one 



that would benefit their material prosperity. 
This belief was shared by the inhabitants 
of the other West Indian islands and gained 
strength with every year, culminating in 
191 2 in the action taken by Mexico. 

The incorporation of Mexico into our 
grand American Union created a profound 
sensation, not only in the Americas, but, 
also, throughout the world. It was a 
purely voluntary act on the part of Mexico, 
one which could not be fondly ascribed by 
the ever-jealous nations of Europe to 
" Yankee greed." It brought about a dis- 
tinctive turn in the tide and the conviction 
became firm in the minds of all that the 
example of Mexico would be followed, 
sooner or later, by every Republic in Cen- 
tral and South America. 

In 1920 public opinion in Peru became 
ripe for a change. The affairs of that Re- 
public had been unsuccessfully administered 
and the land of the Incas seemed likely in 
that year to be devastated by Chile, that 
active and more or less prosperous people, 
sometimes called the "Yankees of South 
America." The prospect of another disas- 
trous war with Chile crystalized public 
opinion in Peru and hastened action on her 
part. In the following year of 1921, Peru 
became a State in our Union. Venezuela 
came next in 1925, then followed in rapid 
succession the entire group of Central 
American States, Guatemala, Salvador, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Hondur. 


Iii 1930 Canada at last joined the 
American Union. Canada had long occu- 
pied the position of an old maid in refer- 
ence to the Union ; she had been entirely 
willing for many years, but had withheld 
her consent ; England, of course, had to be 
consulted, and with the utmost good na- 
ture was present at the wedding ceremonies, 
giving away the Canadian bride into our 
union in a most gracious manner. 

Between 1930 and 1935, in rapid suc- 
cession, the entire stretch of territory 
known as South America, and the eleven 
Republics occupying that continent, were 
incorporated into the United States of the 
Americas. The State of Brazil was recog- 
nized by Congress in 1 93 1, and, on account 
of its large area, consisting of 3,209,878 
square miles, the new State was styled the 
"Texas of the South." 

During the last half of the nineteenth 

century the burning issues caused by the 

AI . „, . Civil War were generally 
Old Wounds , , , * J , 

and vaguely characterized 

as those which existed 
Healed Up. between the North and 
South. The question of State sovereignty, 
slavery and the resultant Civil War, divided 
the North and South into two vast, hostile 
camps. The fall of Richmond in 1865 ter- 
minated hostilities, it is true, but a bitter, 
relentless political and social war was 
waged between these sections for over a 
quarter of a century thereafter. The deep 



wounds caused by the Civil War began to 
slowly heal, but it required a foreign war to 
demonstrate to the world that time at last 
had conquered all animosity, all the anguish 
and bitterness of spirit that had existed be- 
tween the North and South. 

During our war with hpain from April 22, 
1898, to October 26, of the same year, 
Confederate generals who had taken prom- 
inent parts in the Southern arm)', men wh.o 
had led their hosts to help tear into tatters 
the great Constitution of the United States, 
unsheathed their swords once more, in 1898, 
and to their lasting honor, this time it was 
in defense of that very Constitution. In 
1898 the men of the South eagerly followed 
the lead of Wheeler and Fitzhugh Lee and 
sprang to arms in the defence of a united 
country. It was a most impressive specta- 
cle ; one that filled the world with amaze- 
ment and America with patriotic joy. 

In 1999, that little strip of territory lying 

between Mason and Dixon's line and the 

.. gulf of Mexico was no 

No more f , 

, longer known or recog- 

" South nized as the South. The 

in 1999. sceptre of the South had 

passed into the keeping of the South Ameri- 
can continent, which territory in 1999 had 
been divided into ten States of our great 
American Union, namely the States of 
Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, 
Chile, Paragua, Uruagua, Bolivia, Peru 
and, in the extreme South, the State of 

20 l.ooKI.Ni; FiiKWARD, 

The real and actual South of the United 
States of the Americas, in 1999, consisted 
of the States above named, avast sw< 1 p of 
territory lying between the 10 ° North and 
55 ° South of the equator, embracing 
8,207,688 square miles in area, with a pop- 
ulation of 127,000,000 souls. In 1999 the 
State of Brazil alone had a population of 

The Middle States of the great American 
Republic in 1999 were those of Central 
America, namely the States of Costa Rica, 
Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicara- 
gua and Mexico. 

The Northern States of the great Repub- 
lic in 1999 consisted of those states lying 
between Alaska and the Mexican gulf, in- 
cluding the newly acquired States of East 
and West Canada. The population of the 
Middle States in 1999 was estimated at 
75,000,000, while the census of the North- 
ern States figured at 329,000,000. The 
total population of the United States of the 
Americas in 1999, figured at 531,000,000 


The Cuban Question Settled. 


The wretches who blew up the Maine. America is 
slow to anger but terrible in punishment. Cuban 
native government not a success. Joins our 
Union in 1910. 

CUBA became part of the United States 
in 1 9 10. The direct cause of the war 
of 1898 was the blowing up of the Maine. 
Through this premeditated and diabolical 
act, no less than 266 of our brave American 
sailors were murdered in cold blood. 

The Madrid authorities were innocent 
parties to this lamentable transaction and 
their representative in Havana, Captain- 
General Blanco, has been acquitted of the 
heinous charge of participation in that 
fearful piece of butchery. The guilty men, 
the assassins who blew up the Maine on the 
night of the 15th of February, 1898, were 
Weylerites, whose chief, the infamous Gen. 
Weyler, had been removed from office by 
the Sagasta government. To resent this 
slight upon their chief ; to embroil their 
home government in a war with the United 
States, and to gratify their thirst for Ameri- 
can blood, these Weylerites, (who them- 
selves located the mines in Havana harbor,) 
watched their opportunity and exploded the 
mine that destroyed our gallant vessel, hurl- 
ing into eternity 266 of as brave men as ever 
trod a deck. 


But the vengeance that was meted out 
to Spain for the treachery of her murderous 

T . M . sons, was sweeping and 

I ne Jvi3ine , , * 

most complete in its char- 
acter. Our martyrs of 
Avenged. the Maine have been 

avenged. Spain has learned along with the 
rest of the nations, that America is slow to 
anger but swift and terrible in her vengeance; 
from the punishment of Spain the world has 
learned a Yankee lesson that will be re- 
membered in all time to come. 

Apart, however, from the castigation of 
Spain, America had a duty to perform in 
the liberation of Cuba. From the date of 
the arrival of the first shipload of Spaniards 
in 1492 to the departure of the last load of 
Spanish officials and soldiers in 1899, Cuba 
had rested under a cloud. Prosperity under 
Spanish rule, from Valesque in 15 10 to 
Blanco in 1898, appeared to be an impossi- 
bility. From Christopher Columbus to Ad- 
miral Cervera, the first, and the last Spanish 
navigators despatched by the crown of Spain 
to Cuba, the life-blood of that fair isle had 
been wasted away. Its history may fitly be 
written in blood. Such condition of affairs 
could not be endured always at the thresh- 
old of a vast, liberty-loving Republic and 
Cuba's loud appeals for aid stirred America 
to action. War was declared after a formal 
demand upon Spain for the liberation of 
Cuba. The result of the war of 1898 was 
that Spain stood up to the front just long 
enough to get kicked into tatters. 

[•HE CUBAN Ql ESI ION SKI l l in. 23 

On the 1 st day of January, 1902, the 

military occupation of Cuba by the troops 

. -. .. of the United States ter- 

A Civil j , ,, 

minated and the govern- 

ar ment passed into the 

in Cuba. keeping of the Cubans. 

The Cuban government, under President 
Gomez, was beset with difficulties from the 
start. It was found difficult to bridle and 
keep down jealousies and partisan feelings 
among the Cubans themselves. They ap- 
peared to detest one another under their 
native government as cordially as they did 
their former task-masters, the Spaniards. 
As soon as the Cubans established their own 
government, love of country vanished from 
among them ; there appeared to be no unity 
of purpose. 

In 1907 a civil war broke out in the fair 
but unfortunate isle, and during the summer 
of that year the terrible scenes of the last 
struggle with Spain, under Weyler, were 
again re-enacted . During that year and the 
two following years of 1908-09, the gleam- 
ing machette once again performed its 
deadly work. 

This fratricidal war came to an end early 
in 1910, when the Cubans by a plebicite, or 
popular vote, rendered an almost unanimous 
vote in favor of the annexation of Cuba to 
the United States. This important decision 
was ratified by Congress and received the 
official signature of President George Dewey, 
the hero of Manila, at noon on the 24th 
day of December, 1910. 


Keynote of American Expansion. 

The Awakening of America. Dewey the Idol of a 
great Nation. His immense responsibilities at a 
critical period of the war. In 1999 Manila is still 
on every tongue. Spain's bargain with Ger- 
many. Discomfiture of the German Admiral 

IT was the first gun of the Raleigh, fired 
in Manila bay at dawn on the first day 
of May, 1898, that sounded the keynote of 
America's future greatness. The echo of 
that gun had not died out even in 1999. 
It still rang amidst the nations of the earth, 
reverberating across its seas and conti- 
nents. It was the signal that sounded the 
dawn of 

The United States of the Americas, 
a mighty Republic, which, in the year 1999, 
embraced every square foot of land in the 
Western Hemisphere, from the snow-clad 
huts of the Esquimos to the rock-ribbed 
straits of Magellan, with its teeming, hust- 
ling population of 531,000,000 souls. 
Uncle Samuel was boss of the ranch, from 
its Patagonian cellar clear to its roof in the 
Arctic region. With its mighty talons 

_, _ clutching the narrow isth- 

The Great , J? .,, .. 

nuis 01 Panama ; with its 

beak pointing into the 

of Freedom. Atlantic, far beyond 

Porto Rico ; with its tail-feathers covering 

the expanse of the Pacific, clear into the 


Philippines, the American Eagle was a 
proud bird to behold, as its mighty wings 
spread from the North to the South Pole. 
And Dewey's guns did it. 

At critical periods the fate of nations, as 
well as of individuals, seems to suspend by 
a single, slender thread. At such mo- 
ments, so keenly poised are the balances of 
fate, that a mere breath may disturb them. 
Admiral Dewey, the idol of America, un- 
knowingly, held the fate of a vast Repub- 
lic in the hollow of his hand. He knew it 
not ; America knew it not. But in the 
light of events in 1999 such proved to be 
the case. Had he failed ; had his brave 
squadron been annihilated by treacherous 
mines in Manila bay ; had our American 
fleet been destroyed at Cavite, instead of 
Montojo's squadron, the Dream of the 
I'nited States of the Americas would not 
have been realized in 1999. 

But America is unconquerable ; and 
Dewey won. When, on the 24th day of 
April, 189S, the momentous message flashed 
across sea and continent to Dewey, order- 
ing him to "sink or capture" the Spanish 
squadron, the American Eagle gave its first 
shrill cry of defiance. Every man on the 
American fleet off Hong Kong swelled with 
pride from Commodore Dewey to the hum- 
blest powder-monkey. Theirs was a mis- 
sion to feel proud of, and when Dewey's six 
warships sailed south to Manila, April 27. 
1898, to interview the Castillians, every 


man on board the American squadron was 
ready to lay down his life in the cause of 
our noble country. 

These were the men with cool heads and 
unflinching' bravery who first encountered 
the Spanish hosts These were the men 
who electrified a whole world by the splen- 
dor of their matchless victory. The word 
gratitude is a feeble one indeed to adequately 
express the feelings of the American people 
when the truth became known. At first it 
seemed incredible that such a brilliant 
stroke could have been accomplished in less 
than ten days after the declaration of war. 
In 1999 men occasionally referred to Traf- 
algar and the battle of the Nile, Farragut's 
heroism at Mobile bay, the encounter of 
those two little scorpions, the Monitor and 
Merrimac, and other naval engagements, as 
matters of history, but the peerless Ameri- 
can victory at Manila bay, the praises of 
the one and only Dewey and his brave men, 
were still, in that year, the theme on every 

In 1999 it was reckoned a high distinc- 
tion for any American to be able to say that 
his father, brother or relative took part in 
the great victory at Manila. Indeed, there 
still lived in 1999. in the State of Brazil, 
an extremely old man, aged 1 1 5 years, who 
took part in the gallant fight off Cavite in 

When Dewey's squadron left Mirs bay to 
proceed upon its eventful voyage to Manila, 



Earl Stanley, at that time a stripling ot 

fourteen years, hid in an empty hogs- 
. p. . head in the hold of the 

... warship Boston, just 

Little i.u a a * 

as the American fleet 

American Lad. was we jghing anchor. 
When the mountains about Mirs bay and 
the Chinese mainland had disappeared from 
the sight of the squadron, Stanley, the 
young stowaway, emerged from his retreat 
and soon after landed in the arms of a 
marine, who brought the lad before the 
Captain. That official was at first inclined 
to deal severely with the young culprit. 
The latter, however, was straightforward 
and fearless in his bearing. He plainly 
told the Captain that he stole his way on 
board the Boston to share in the right 
and he was ready to do anything to fight 
under the Stars and Stripes. The Cap- 
tain, though outwardly severe, secretly 
admired the lad's pluck and turned him 
over to the charge of a gun-crew. In 1999 
Earl Stanley resided in Rio Janeiro, and for 
over sixty years had been drawing a month- 
ly pension of $35 from the government. 
He was in that year the sole survivor of the 
battle of Manila, an exclusive distinction 
he had already enjoyed for many long 

Aside from the sweeping results of the 
action off Cavite, Admiral Dewey's firm and 
resolute attitude towards Aguinaldo and his 
mercenaries, as well as his open defiance to 


the German squadron, gave the keenest sat- 
isfaction throughout the United States. 

As early as the year 1902, the fact, long 
suspected, was at last officially confirmed, 
that before the declaration of war in 1898 

. , ., . between Spain and Amer- 
Spain failed ,, • • j c 1 

ica, there existed a firmly 

to deliver established secret alliance 

the Goods. between Spain and Ger- 
many. Spain had bartered with Germany 
for her active support in her war against 
the Yankees. In compensation for her aid 
and countenance, Spain had agreed to cede 
over to Germany, in fee simple, the entire 
group of Philippine islands. After Dewey's 
matchless victory of the 1st of May, Ger- 
many slipped on her "thinking cap" and 
experienced an exceedingly sudden change 
of mind. Her "aid" in the Spanish cause 
was not worth a baby's rattle. As to the 
German "countenance," it looked so crest- 
fallen and hopelessly sour that Spain as she 
gazed upon it refused to be comforted. 

But, notwithstanding this, with an impu- 
dence that was positively refreshing to 
contemplate, after the battle of Manila, 
Germany put up a fine game of bluff and 
acted as though she held a proprietary in- 
terest in the Philippines. The German 
government dispatched a fleet of seven war 
vessels to Manila bay, under command of 
Admiral von Diederichs, under a flimsy pre- 
text of "protecting German interests." In 
reality it was intended by the presence of 



this German squadron in Manila bay to an- 
noy, bulldoze, and if possible to intimidate 
Commodore Dewey. 

For six weeks after the battle of Manila, 
Dewey's fleet as a result of the fight, was 

, .„., n . low in its ammunition 

Little Powder , , ,. ™ 

and coal supplies. 1 here 

u ° s was one very important 

of Pluck. lighting factor however, 

that never ran short on the American fleet, 
as that was the indomitable pluck and fight- 
ing mettle of Dewey and his men. Dewey 
diplomatically tolerated some of the petty 
annoyances offered at that time by the Ger- 
mans, but they were given by the brave 
American commander to distinctly under- 
stand that there existed a danger-line which 
once crossed, would bring death and hospi- 
tals in its wake. None knew better than 
the German Admiral that the practice of 
lighting matches around powder magazines 
is a very unhealthy one. 

Admiral Von Diederichs bluffed around 
with his squadron, but with a wisdom that 
Solomon himself might have envied, he gave 
Dewey's danger-line a wide berth. It was 
only when Admiral Dewey sent his famous 
request to the Department for the Oregon, 
"for political reasons," that the German 
fleet in Manila bay suddenly discovered that 
they had some urgent business elsewhere, 
and made a very hasty exit from the un- 
healthy neighborhood of an American Ad- 
miral who had a mind of his own and a line 
lot of lads to back up his opinion. 

chapter v. 

Centennial Celebration of Man- 
ila 1998. 

America never surrenders, and that is one reason 
why we hold on to the Philippines. Grand 
Celebration of the Dewey Centennial through- 
out the Americas. 

IN the year 1999 the American possession 
of the Philippine islands was regarded 
throughout the United States of the Ameri- 
cas as a master stroke. Statesmen in that 
year asked themselves how the Americas 
could have ever developed their enormous 
Asiatic commerce, without having a point 
(V appui, or base of operations, in Oriental 
waters ? 

In the year 1899 Christendom (and 
Heathendom, as well,) beheld with amaze- 
ment the carving up of China by the greedy 
vultures of Europe. In that year of her 
interminable history, China resembled a 
huge, helpless jelly-fish, attacked on every 
side by the sword-fishes of Europe. While 
this interesting process of China-carving 
was in full operation, America, as a result 
of Dewey's victory, discovered that a pearl 

T , rw-Ms of rare value had fallen 

The Philip- . , . , 

into her lap. \\ hen 

P Dewey entered Manila 

in 1999. b a y on t ^ e ever memor- 

able morn of May 1st, 1898, he had not so 


much as a hitching-post to fasten the paint- 
er (rope) of his smallest launch. But, be- 
fore the setting of the sun on that day, he 
had laid low a whole empire under the keels 
of his squadron. There lived not a solitary 
European Admiral of the period of 1898 
who would not have given his right arm to 
have been in Dewey's place. 

In 1999 it appeared incredible that one 
year only after the battle of Manila there 
were men (earnest and well-meaning patri- 
ots, many of them,) who were strenuously 
opposed to the retention of those islands 
by the United States of America. It was 
difficult, in the twentieth century, to con- 
ceive how short-sighted, how unmindful of 
our country's glorious future, were those so- 
called anti-expansionists. 

In 1999 the argument was clear and in- 
disputable that America in 1898 had not 
waged a wanton war for conquest. It was 
a necessity of war that brought about the 
destruction of the Manila wing of the Span- 
ish fleet, and the city was captured subse- 
quently as an act of self-defense. It be- 

r, , , came a measure of ne- 

Rocked in . 

_ .. cessity to " put to sleep 

the Cradle V V « , 

every Spanish gun afloat 

of the Deep. in the ?acific Had 

Dewey allowed any of these sea-hounds to 
escape and prey upon American commerce 
in that ocean, what would have become of 
our merchant shipping in the Pacific ? 
Our finest steamships would have been at 

3 2 


the mercy of the most contemptible Span- 
ish privateer. Hundreds of precious lives 
and American shipping, representing mil- 
lions of dollars, must have been destroyed 
by the pirates of the red and yellow flag. 
But Dewey put them all to sleep and rocked 
them in the cradle of the deep. 

This deed of self-defence accomplished, 
then what ? Ought Dewey to have vacated 
Manila bay and made a laughing-stock of 
himself or stand his ground and bring the 
fight with Spain to a finish ? There can be 
but one patriotic answer to this question. 

Dewey stood his ground, and in 1899 
public opinion throughout the world divided 
itself into two great camps — those who 
openly and others who secretly admired the 
brave American Admiral. 

On the 1st day of May, 1998 the Centen- 
nial anniversary of the battle of Manila was 
celebrated with a volcanic display of intense 
enthusiasm throughout the United States of 
the Americas. It was " Dewey Day" from 
the State of Alaska clear south to the State 

_ , , of Patagonia. The seals 

Equal to „ J? , , 

in Baffin s bay wore an 
the 4th extra smilC( while the 

of July. albatross and other gulls 

at the Horn circled about and fluttered as 
though something uncommon was on. 

Every city in the vast Republic was in 
gala attire to honor the glorious memories 
of the day. In Washington, (Mexico,) and 
at the capitals of each of the eighty-five 


States of the Americas the Manila Centen- 
nial was signalized with a patriotic enthusi- 
asm seldom equaled but never eclipsed. 

The celebration of the Centennial anni- 
versary of Waterloo by the old allied nations 
of Europe in 191 5 proved a very brilliant 
affair, one which dazzled the world by its 
magnificence and regal splendor. But the 
Manila Centennial in 1998 relegated the 
Waterloo episode entirely in the shade. 
The only American national celebration of 
the twentieth century that might compare 
with it was the Bi-Centennial celebration 
of the Declaration of Independence on the 
4th day of July, 1976. 

The Manila Centennial in 1998 celebrated 

what was universally regarded as the pivotal 

~ . „ . . or turning point in Amer- 
Turning Point TT . ° v „ ., 

ican History, rromthe 

date of that battle in 
American History lSgS the supremacy of 

the United States became established as a 
first-grade power. Its prowess in war and 
triumphs in the arts of peace were univer- 
sally recognized. Little then is it to be 
wondered at that the American Colossus in 
1998 seethed with patriotic fervor on the 
1st day of May of the Manila Centennial 

The preparations for the great event had 
been under way for nearly a year. It was 
clearly remembered in 1998 that, although 
Bunker Hill was an insignificant fight from 
a military point of view, yet it was a glori- 


ous battle for America from the fact that it 
proved a turning point in our nation's his- 
tory. So it proved with the battle of Man- 
ila. It was a turning point in our national 
history that demanded a fitting celebration 
of its centennial anniversary. 

In 1998 the President of the United 

States of the Americas was Vernon R. 

A £. . Schley, a grandson of 

the famous Admiral who 

annihilated Cerv era's 
Old Block. fleet on the 3d day of 

July, 1898, while the commander-in-chief 
was inconveniently away on some other 
errand. Upon President Schley devolved 
the high honor, but irksome and difficult 
task, of firing at sunrise a salute of aerial 
torpedoes in the capitals of every State in 
the vast American Republic, and, at the 
same moment, from his private office in the 
Capitol building in Washington, Mexico, 
the President unfurled the American flag on 
the dome of every State house in the 

This, of course, was accomplished by 
means of electricity. At first thought it 
might appear to be a very easy task to press 
a button in the State of Mexico and fire off 
aerial torpedoes in the States of Alaska, the 
Canadas, Peru, Patagonia, Argentine, 
Venezuela, Bolivia and Brazil at the same 
instant, extending the salutes to the Middle 
American States of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
Salvador, Guatemala, but as a matter of 


fact, the task of the President was by no 

means an easy one. 

On the Manila Centennial anniversary 

day President Schley required nearly three 

„ . A , hours of constant work 

Going Around fi . . . 

to fire the national sa- 

w lutes from the Eastern to 

Sun - the Western Capitals of 

the great Republic at exactly sunrise in 
each city on the ist day of May, 1998. 
The sun arose on the Eastern Capitals of 
the New England States that morning at 
5:32 a. M. in Hartford, Boston, Montpel- 
ier and other cities, but it was nearly 8:43 
a. m. before the President could fire off the 
aerial torpedoes over the Golden Gate, un- 
furling at the same moment Old Glory, 
which waved to the morning breezes of the 
broad Pacific. 

All those States of the Americas, from 
Canada to Patagonia that are on the same 
degree of longitude received their signals 
from the President at about the same time. 
The most easterly city of the American 
Union in 1999 was Rio Janeiro, situate on 
the 40 ° longitude. The torpedo salutes 
were first fired there in honor of the great 
Centennial. The next city that saluted 
was Montevideo. Buenos Avres next fol- 
lowed. Boston, Mass., Caracas in the 
State of Venezuela and Bogota in the State 
of Colombia were next "touched off" by 
President Schley, and so in the course of 
the rising sun each American city saluted 



the glorious day. When this feature of 
the 1998 centennial program was ex- 
plained to a Frenchman on the 1st day of 
May of that year, he shrugged his shoulders 
as only a Frenchman can, exclaiming : 
" Mon Dieu, vhy don't zey fire a salute in 
zee sun, — parbleu." 

In this vast aggregation of eighty-five 
States the Dewey Centennial celebration 
was everywhere observed with marked en- 
thusiasm, but the style of the celebration 
differed widely, according to the section or 
location of the State in which it was held. 
n . ff Throughout Alaska and 

the two Canadian States 
Ways of and the northern belt of 

Celebrating. states, military page- 
ants, naval parades, athletic sports, ora- 
tions, concerts and banquets predominated. 

In the tropical or Central American 
States, high mass was celebrated in all the 
cathedrals and churches in Mexico, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, Salvador, Guatemala and 
Costa Rica, and the day was given to feast- 
ing and dancing. Throughout the south- 
ern sections of the United States of the 
Americas, in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil 
and contiguous States, the Te Deum was 
chanted in all the principal churches and 
high mass was celebrated with a pomp and 
magnificence that appeals so irresistibly to 
the heart of the Latin race. In each State 
of the Americas ample appropriations had 
been voted from State funds to meet the 


expenses of the great day. Not a family in 
the colossal American Republic of 500,- 
000,000 souls lacked on that day for a 
feast of the choicest delicacies, with a carte 
blanche of wines of the most grateful and 
generous vintage. 

On the occasion of the Manila Centen- 
nial in 1999 Englishmen were accorded the 
seat of honor at every table in the Ameri- 
cas and the health of King Alexander II, 
who in 1999 wielded the sceptre of Great 
Britain, was tossed off with gusto and en- 
thusiasm by every living American. Eng- 
land's true and sterling friendship to Amer- 
ica in 1898 was still vividly remembered in 
1998. The strong grasp of her hand at a 
critical period in 1898, when her attitude 
became a matter of vital importance to 
America, was still cordially appreciated. 

Every American Governor in the South 
American States as well as those of Central 
and North America, gave a sumptuous ban- 
quet in honor of the day. At Rio Janeiro 
Gov. Day entertained no less than 9,000 at 
his festive tables. Gov. Horace K. Depew, 
a grandson of the Senator and ex-railroad 
magnate, entertained 30, 000 guests in Wash- 
ington, (Mexico). In splendor, elegance 
and lavish hospitality even the chronicles 
of the Middle Ages could furnish no parallel. 
Gov. Depew's guests were banqueted and 
feted in one of Montezuma's old palaces 
which still retained much of its architectural 
beauty and was rich in the memories of a 
glorious past. 


High mass was celebrated in the cathe- 
dral of Mexico. Gov. Depew and a brilliant 
staff attended the services. All public edi- 

~ . . fices and private houses 

Celebrating r 1 j * a 

were profusely decorated 

with garlands and fes- 
flexico. toons of beautiful tropical 

flowers of the most gorgeous dyes. Mas- 
sive arches, embellished with medallions of 
Dewey, were erected on all the principal 
streets and avenues. These were made of 
verdant boughs, intertwined with the choic- 
est floral creations of the tropics. Martial 
music and a constant firing of aerial torpe- 
does kept public interest at its keenest edge, 
from dawn to night. These festive scenes 
in the State of Mexico were re-enacted all 
over the Americas on the 1st day of May, 
1998. The Dewey or Manila Centennial 
was a tribute to the memory of the man who 
at Manila bay, electrified the world and laid 
the corner stone of the United States of the 

chapter vi. 
England's Valued Friendship. 

The American Victory at Manila was also an English 
Victory, so proud did our British cousins feel 
over it. Spain's bribe of the Philippines. France 
and Germany beg England to remain Neutral 
while they set out to thrash Uncle Sam. 

IF the reader is an American, the question 
will naturally arise, what became of our 
transatlantic cousins in the " right tight lit- 
tle island " in the year 1999 ? In what light 
was the stupendous fabric of the United 
States of the Americas regarded by England 
in that year? Did England view with 
friendliness and complacency the develop- 
ment of the American Colossus ? Surely 
the awakening of the Americas, both polit- 
ically and industrially, must have seriously 
challenged the attention of England. Was 
England in 1999 the same powerful, cordial 
friend of America that she so well proved 
herself to be in 1898 ? 

During the year 1899 Admiral Seymour 
of the British Navy, while cruising in Asi- 
atic waters, paid Admiral Dewey a visit on 
the Olympia. His parting words to the 
American Admiral were: "Your victory 
at Cavite was also our victory." No words 
could better express the fraternal and cor- 
dial relations existing in 1899 between Eng- 
land and America and the Dreamer feels 


proud and happy to say that in 1999 these 
cordial relations were still in full force. 
Providence, it would appear, had selected 
these two great nations to act as leaders 
and standard-bearers among the peoples of 
the earth. Their spheres of action in 1999 
did not clash, hence no jealousy existed be- 
tween the two nations. 

In 1899 America, while perfectly friendly 
to England and proud to be her ally, was 
reluctant to enter into an offensive and de- 
fensive alliance with her. The spirit of 
American independence, always self-reliant, 
was slow and exceedingly cautious in the 
matter of "entangling alliances." The 
only alliance possible would be one with 
England, which nation is the parent of the 
Anglo-Saxon race. 

England's wise and friendly course during 

the Spanish-American war, had filled the 

c , , heart of every true Amer- 

ican patriot with grati- 
our j r> 1 

tude. By her sagacious 

Firm Friend. act i on the unpleasant 
memories of 1776, 1812 and the Alabama 
episode, had been entirely obliterated, root 
and branch, from every American breast. 

Before the outbreak of hostilities in 1898, 
which culminated in the Yanko-Spanko war, 
there existed between France, Germany and 
Spain a secret, yet none the less tacit un- 
derstanding, that in the event of war, the 
two powers first named would come forward 
to the assistance of Spain as against the 



cordially detested Yankees. France held 
the bulk of Spanish securities and was vital- 
ly interested in the issue of the conflict be- 
tween Spain and America. The success of 
the Spanish cause or its disaster, signified 
either the gain or loss of millions of Span- 
ish securities. Her sympathies, therefore, 
were given over to Spain and the French 
government and people were quite ready to 
expend chilled steel and smokeless powder 
against the bulwarks of America. 

Germany, on the other hand, in her self- 
assumed role of general meddler- in-chief of 

-, . , rr the so -styled "European 

Spain s Two , ,, .,. r , 

concert, was spoiling tor 
Great and a fight with a country 

Good Friends. that had taken from her 

hundreds of thousands of her best citizens 
and whose industrial expansion was a thorn 
in her side. 

For the first time since 1870, when the 
French tri-color was humbled in the dust of 
Sedan, Germany and France were interest- 
ed in a common cause against America, and 
were actuated by the same selfish motives 
against the American Republic. Both were 
ready in April, 1898, to fly at America's 
throat and in unison with Spain, administer 
to our American Republic a first-class 
thrashing. These two worthies entertained 
the notion that the great American Repub- 
lic would very soon be humbled and be only 
too glad to sue for peace on bended knees. 

In return for her valuable services in this 



delightful program, Germany was to be re- 
warded by Spain with the gift outright of 
the Philippine islands. This was the beau- 
tiful cluster of grapes which tempted the 
cupidity of the German fcx. 

But, alas, in the language of the lament- 
ed Josh Billings, "nothing is more certain 
than the uncertaint}' of this world." France 
and Germany, (an ill-assorted and graceless 
pair,) had reckoned without their host. 

Sorely against their wishes, with hat in 
hand, France and Germany found them- 
selves under the absolute necessity of calling 
at the office of a certain pugnacious and 
only too well known gentleman by the name 
of John Bull, whose home since the days 
of the Druids and William the Bastard has 
been in the snug little island of England 
and whose postofnce address is London. 

They (F. and G.) came to consult John 
Bull on the very important subject of their 
proposed expedition against America, with 
Spain acting as a tail to their kite. 

They explained to Mr. Bull the object of 

their mission ; they set forth in a very clear 

A v light that Uncle Sam, on 

the other side of the At- 
Anxious lantiCj needed a sound 

Pair. thrashing, and what was 

more, needed it very badly. France and 
Germany posed before J. B. as champions 
of a weaker nation that they were both very 
anxious to protect. They represented that 
they had no possible interest in the outcome 



of a war between America and Spain. All 
they asked of England was merely to remain 
neutral, — to keep quiet while the three prize 
stars, France, Germany and Spain, proceed- 
ed to give Uncle Sam a taste of their raw- 

Then it was that the British Lion gave a 
roar, and in clear, unmistakable language 
informed both France and Germany if they 
ventured to fire a gun against America in 
the defence of Spain, England would not 
remain neutral, but would side with Ameri- 
ca and lend her assistance on sea and land. 

The British Lion is not to be trifled with. 
France and Germany knew this only too 
well, and when the war broke out they de- 
cided to remain home and wisely stay in 
doors while it rained Spain went to war 
alone with her powerful enemy and took her 
medicine, we were nearly tempted to say, 
" like a good little man." 

The era of fraternal love, inaugurated 
through England's wise action in repulsing 
the advances of France and Germany, 
proved the keystone to the greatness of 
America and England in 1999. Ever after 
the Spanish-American war they remained 
loyal and true to one another and their 
friendship and mutual interests ever in- 
creased thereafter. Throughout the twen- 
tieth century England and America stood 
side by side in every emergency. It was 
not necessary to draw up legal documents 
with enormous seals and yards of red silk 



ribbon to cement the alliance of true friend- 
ship that existed between the two nations. 
Their hearts beat in unison in the common 
cause of humanity. In the twentieth cen- 
tury England and America were invincible 
in war and leaders in all arts of peace. 

chapter vii. 
Our Foreign Relations in 1999. 

HAVING clearly set forth in our earlier 
chapters the splendid proportions and 
the commanding position on this globe held 
by the United States of the Americas in 
1999, it now becomes necessary in order to 
determine the position of the great American 
Republic in its international relations, to 
review, in brief, the condition of Europe, 
and, more particularly that of England, in 
the twentieth century. 

In the year 1999 the British and American 
flags protected over one-half of the human 
family and before the close of the twenty- 
first century it appeared certain that English 
would become the universal language. The 
population of the world in 1999 figured at 
a trifle over 2,000,000,000 souls. The pop- 
ulation of the United States of the Americas 
in 1999 was rated at 531,000,000, while that 
of the British possessions figured at about 
an equal amount, making a grand total pop- 
ulation of over 1,000,000,000 people under 
the flags of the two nations. It is easy to 
comprehend how, under two thoroughly en- 
F ... lightened governments, 

... .vith a good system of ed- 

the Universal ucationj free schoolS) and 

Language. an en terprising press, 
English rapidly came to the front as the 


universal language, and in the year 1999 it 
became obvious and clear to all candid 
minds that the Anglo-Saxon race already 
dominated the world. 

The Arbitration Treaty between England 
and America was signed on the 6th day of 
June 1910. By the provisions of this docu- 
ment it was agreed that in the event of any 
dispute between the two countries Arbitra- 
tion as a settlement for all difficulties would 
be resorted to. Public opinion on both 
sides of the Atlantic was sternly opposed to 
any resort to war between England and the 
Americas. The Arbitration Treaty was 
signed by her gracious Majesty, Queen Vic- 
toria, who was still seated on the British 
throne and was enjoying a fair measure of 
health in 191 o at the venerable age of 92 
years. This marvelous and well-preserved 
lady still retained the homage and respect 
of the entire world, and the indications 
pointed to a grand celebration of her Majes- 
ty's centennial anniversary in 191 8. But 
the world was denied that privilege and 
honor. In the year 191 2, the Duke of York, 
(Victoria's grandson,) succeeded to the Bri- 
tish throne, assuming the title of Alexan- 
der I. 

In 1999 radical changes had taken place 

in the map of Europe. The long interna- 

~ tional feud and bitterness 

France . ,. , — 

„ ... _. MT existing between r ranee 

Gobbled Up by and Germany had been 

Germany. twke we i gne d in the 

scales of war. The wound caused to French 


national pride by the fall of Sedan, Metz and 
Paris, rancored long in the breasts of all 
Frenchmen. It was a grief silently borne, 
but none the less keen. In 1907 the 
French military party again shouted the 
battle cry, "A Berlin," and in the brief but 
disastrous war that followed again were the 
proud eagles of France trailed in the dust. 
France lost more of her territory in the 
Franco-German war of 1907 and Germany 
saddled on her an enormous war indemnity 
in the shape of $3,000,000,000. 

This was a hard blow to French national 
pride. Russia, her ally, proved false to 
,her promises of aid and France was left 
alone to determine the issue with Ger- 

The terrible disaster of 1907 only added 
oil to the French fire of hatred, and in 1935 
France, for some imaginary cause, again 
entered into another war of revenge, 
(guerre de revanche,) against Germany. 
As a result of the war of 1 93 $ France ut- 
terly collapsed. At the close of that war 
Germany took possession of Paris and 
maintained German garrisons in all of the 
forts surrounding that city for a period of 

r u 14 ten years, or until the 

Germans Hold J ~ . 

Paris for y ear . r 945- Germany de- 

termined, while holding 
I en Years. possession of Paris, to 
reduce the enormous military establishment 
of France, the maintenance of which had 
greatly impoverished both countries. In 


order to suppress and crush France, Ger- 
man garrisons were maintained in every 
province of France. In this manner Ger- 
many kept her mailed grasp upon France, 
ready at any moment to stifle her upon the 
least show of resistance. In 1999 France 
became practically reduced to the condition 
of a German province. 

Those who lived in the year 1899 will 
recollect only too well the crying injustice 

Th w perpetrated upon the per- 

son of an innocent French 

officer, Dreyfus, who suf- 
Poor Dreyfus. fered and was humi i iated 

in a manner which, fortunately, seldom 
falls to the lot of man. France's lack of 
moral courage to grant justice to Capt. 
Dreyfus for so many years, proved to the 
world that " la belle France," after all, was 
merely a Dead Sea apple,— beautiful to the 
eye but rotten to the core. 

It is then no cause for surprise that 
France, the moral coward, in 1935, had 
been transformed into a German province. 

In 1999 Spain and Turkey had both been 

carved up, banqueted upon and digested by 

... „ the political cannibals of 

Adieu Spain ~ r T . 

Europe. In the parti- 

_ an ' tion that took place in 

' urkey. tne twentieth century 

England had been careful to secure for her- 
self some of Spain's choice side-cuts and 
joints and also secured her slice of Turkey. 
Turkey had been an invalid for many 


long years, and its obliteration from the 
map of Europe was merely a question of 
time. These semi-civilized and blood- 
thirsty Turks with a hideous history 
drenched in innocent blood, champions of 
lust and rapine, oppressors of Armenia and 
violators of chastity, were finally driven out 
of Europe in 1920, burled back once more 
into the dens of Asia Minor from whence 
they came. 

Russia had lung held a first mortgage 
upon the Turkish vagabond's estate in 
Europe and possessed herself of a large 
share of the vacated territory. But Rus- 
sia, strange to relate, was kept out of Con- 
stantinople in 1999. England, Germany, 
and what was left of France, as well as 
Italy, were still fully determined that Rus- 
sia should never command the Bosphorus 
and the Dardanelles. The European Pow- 
ers were ready, as of old, to smash Russia 
and defeat her ambition in that direction. 
They knew only too well that once firmly 

_. . _ planted in the Ottoman 

Shut Out x 1 o ua „ 

capital Russia would then 

become the absolute mas- 
Constantinople. ter o{ E urope . In 1999 

the Turkish territory about Constantinople, 
on both banks of the Bosphorus, was rec- 
ognized as a neutral zone and was held in 
trust by the united nations of Europe. No 
war vessels were permitted to anchor in 
the Dardanelles under any pretence what- 

chapter viii. 
The Fate of Spain. 

The Invention of aerial warships. In 1924 an In- 
ternational Congress is held at Washington. 
Law passed prohibiting the use of aerial war- 
ships. Spain is first to violate the compact. The 
penalty is extermination from the face of the 

SPAIN, in 1999, was reduced to a mere 
geographical quantity. Ever after the 
Spanish unpleasantness with America, in 
1898, Spain's unhappy history had been 
sliding down a greased pole. From the 
moment that Columbus discovered Amer- 
ica, Spain became a spoiled child of for- 

In 1492 Spain had a population of 40,- 
000,000 people, — frugal, industrious and 
prosperous. In the arts and sciences they 
led the world in those days. In military 
science and navigation none could equal 
them. The discovery of America utterly 
ruined Spain in less than three hundred 
years. Spaniards thereafter ceased to de- 
pend upon their own energy and resources. 
Intoxicated by the brilliant discoveries of 
Columbus, the dazzling conquests of Pizarro, 
Cortes and De Soto, Spain has endeavored 
since the fifteenth century to enslave the 
New World and live upon the sweat of 
others' brows. 



The acquisition of sudden and prodigious 

wealth in the New World ; the steady flow 

_, _. of money brought into 

The Dangers c , J , ,\ ,, 

Spam by slave labor ; the 

luxury and voluptuous 

Sudden Wealth. ease of Hfe thus engen- 
dered, form important factors in the history 
of Spain's decline. After losing all of her 
vast possessions in the New World, it was 
left to America in 1898 to give the Span- 
iards their coup-de-grace and check their 
baggage for Madrid. 

In 1942 Spain ceased to possess a govern- 
ment of her own. After a devastating war, 
(une guerre a. 1' outrance,) Spain ended her 
official existence and was parcelled out 
among the European nations. England, 
with Gibraltar to start with, secured a gen- 
erous slice of the Spanish booty. In the 
twentieth century England was still well in- 
clined to make the best possible use of her 
opportunities, and America was always glad 
to advance her cause, whenever it was prac- 
ticable to do so. 

The annihilation of Spain came about 
after the following manner: 

In the year 191 7 the world rejoiced at the 
prospect of a permanent solution of the war 
problem. The new devices invented and 
perfected by the deviltry of man, to be em- 
ployed in the destruction of his fellow men, 
had reached in that year such a degree of 
perfection that war simply meant the whole- 
sale destruction or total annihilation of those 
who engaged in it. 

5 2 


In 191 7 aerial navigation was practically 

solved, and a new and vast element had 

A N opened its possibilities to 

_, the will of man. At the 

Element 1 c ., ■ , ,, 

close 01 the nineteenth 

in War. century the "blue ethe- 

rial" was wholly unobstructed in its vast 
extent and still defied the skill of our best 
inventors. Prof. Langley and his disciples 
had not yet solved the great question of 
serial navigation. In 1899 this most invit- 
ing and ever tempting field of research still 
remained an unsolved mystery. The old 
fashioned balloon, with no will or control 
of its own, subject to the whim or caprice 
of every breath of air, was the best apology 
we could offer in 1899 f° r purposes of aerial 

In 191 7 the problem of aerial navigation 

had been practically solved by Tesla, in 

_-, . . whose brain many pro- 

found secrets of nature 
Navigation had ^ beeR harbored< 

Perfected. with the aid and poten . 

tiality of electricity, (the slave of the twen- 
tieth century), a'rial navigation had been 
perfected. One of the first devices in- 
vented for use in the air was the aerial 
warship, operated and controlled by elec- 

Loaded with a quarter ton of dynamite, 
these deadly warships, without anyone to 
navigate them could be made to hover 
over a city and threaten its population 



with total annihilation. They were popu- 
larly called " death angels." The sight of 
one of the warships blanched the cheeks of 
the most intrepid, filling the city or town 
over which it hovered with utmost con- 

The human mind recoiled with horror at 
the thought of war with such fearful en- 

„. , gines of destruction. 

Simply ° , . , 

,,,. . . l n fact war carried on 

Wholesale -, u ■ , , • , 

with serial dynamite 

i under, ships was no longer 

worthy of being called by that dignified 
name, it was simply a wholesale destruc- 
tion of lives and property. With strange 
inconsistency, the world in 1917 appeared 
to be willing to wage war on the "retail 
plan." It was apparently willing to sacri- 
fice human beings in terrible battles fought 
between powerfully armed vessels, with 
heavy rifles and rapid firing guns. The 
world was willing to slaughter life by one 
method, yet it held in abhorrence these 
"death angels," which accomplished a 
wholesale instead of a retail destruction of 
life and property. 'With an inconsistency 
peculiarly its own, the world in 191 7 ap- 
peared quite willing that 50,000 men should 
be destroyed in a single battle by rapid- 
firing guns, which could mow down a whole 
regiment at a time, but the proposition 
to destroy an arm}' of 50,000 men with 
one of the deadly aerial warships, was 
everywhere regarded with horror. By this 



decision the world placed itself in the posi- 
tion of a man who was willing to be killed 
by the shot of a six-inch rifle, yet strongly 
objected on the score of humanity to being 
riddled by the shell of a 14-inch rifle. 

War at best is but a relic of barbarism, 
and, be it waged with serial warships, or 
submarine torpedoes, with Mauser rifles or 
smooth bore guns, it accomplishes the same 
end ; nations are plunged into ruin ; the 
family circle is broken ; widows and orphans 
are left disconsolate. 

Be this as it may, in the year 1924, a 

Congress of the leading nations was held in 

the city of Washington, (then situated in 

the State of Mexico,) and, as a result of its 

deliberations a solemn compact was entered 

into, signed by the Ambassadors of every 

civilized nation, and a treaty of the most 

~ . , .,, binding character was 

^Erial War ,. n ° . , . , . 

ratified, in which it was 

Ips stipulated that under no 

Prohibited. conditions, named or un- 
named, would the use of aerial warships 
ever be permitted as an instrument or 
medium for waging war among nations. 

It was furthermore agreed and stipulated 
between these nations that if, at any future 
period, any nation on the habitable globe 
should ever permit itself to employ a sys- 
tem of aerial warships for the prosecution 
of war, the other signatories of the treaty 
would make common cause and combine in 
an attack against the offender. They would 



proceed to invade its territory, destroy its 
cities and monuments, lay waste its plains, 
obliterate its flag and name from the family 
of nations. The remaining property of the 
violator of the treaty must also be seized 
and sold, the proceeds to be donated to 
charitable deeds. 

It was further stipulated between the sig- 
natory powers that the punishment meted 
out to any violator of this solemn treaty 
would be in the same kind as its offending. 
In other words, a nation that employed the 
use of aerial warships and practiced the 
horrible system of dropping from great 
heights heavy charges of high explosives 
upon cities, fleets or shipping, would be 
wiped out from the face of the earth and 
annihilated by the same methods of destruc- 

The first violator of the Washington 
Treaty of 1924 proved to be Spain, the 
A R . ancient home and abid- 

ing-place of the Holy In- 
quisition, that reprobate 
Caught. among nations ; the ema- 
ciated and wasted offspring of priestcraft. 
To her in 1930 was meted out the condign 
punishment which she richly deserved for 
her flagrant violation of the Washington 
Treaty in prosecuting her war against Mo- 
rocco. During this war, in the year 1929, 
Spain had resorted to the use of serial war- 
ships and by employing a fleet of "death 
angels," she had utterly destroyed the 

c6 looking forward. 

ancient city of Fez, the capital of that bar- 
baric North African State, reducing the city 
into a heap of ruins and causing the slaugh- 
ter, in less than thirty minutes, of over 
175,000 people. Tangier, on the northern 
boundary of Morocco, a city of 75,000 pop- 
ulation, had also suffered the same fate from 
the Spanish " death angels." Tangier, with 
its inhabitants, was reduced to ashes in less 
than ten minutes. 

In order to chastise Spain for her wanton 
cruelty and open violation of the interna- 
tional convention of 1924, a peremptory 
note was served upon the Madrid authori- 
ties, signed by the Treaty Powers, with the 
names of America and England at the head 
of the list. It was particularly observed 
that the signature of the United States of 
the Americas was underscored, as though to 
remind Spain that America had not forgot- 
ten the wrongs of Cuba. 

On the 2 1st day of April, 1930, (just 

thirty-two years after the declaration of our 

„ . .. first war with Spain,) no- 

Hoisting . 1 .1 

tice was served upon the 

tne Madrid authorities that 

Storm-signal. within thirty days from 

date, the allied nations of the world would 
mobilize their atrial war fleets and proceed to 
devastate Spanish territory. This ultima- 
tum included Ceuta, the Balearic islands, 
as well as the ever-faithful isles of the Can- 

This international ultimatum was dis- 



patched in conformity to the terms of the 
Washington Treaty of 1924, which demand- 
ed, irrevocably and without appeal, the ex- 
tinction of any nation that employed such 
barbarous methods of warfare as serial war- 
ships and the practice of hurling gun-cot- 
ton, dynamite and nitro-glycerine from the 
skies upon defenceless cities. 

At last Spanish pride was humbled. 
With a terrible doom to face, with no friend 
to counsel, succor or comfort her, Spain 
was at last brought to the dregs of humil- 

Spain Sheds iat j on - I n vain did that 

Crocodile chappy country plead 

tor leniency and mercy. 

Spain was willing to sue 

for peace and safety upon any terms, but 

in vain did that stricken nation wave the 

olive branch. 

The countenance of the world was with- 
drawn from Spain. The Treaty Powers 
were obdurate and Spain must suffer for 
the terrible slaughter of Fez and Tangier. 
The world in 1930 demanded that an ex- 
ample should be made. It was determined 
to settle, once and forever, the important 
question of using dynamite and other ful- 
minants as a weapon of war thrown down 
from airships. It had been determined 
that any nation employing such barbarous 
methods of warfare should be uprooted from 
the face of the earth. 

The object and purpose of the thirty-day 
notice was to allow the entire population, 


men, women and children, ample time to 

leave the doomed kingdom. The Treaty 

~. . . ~ Powers, in seeking to 

Thirty Days . , ' ,. , b 

punish Spain, did not 

wish to sacrifice life. The 
Leave Spain. punishment Spain was 
to receive consisted in the annihilation of 
her kingdom and the destruction of her 
cities and monuments. Like modern Jews, 
who had lost their Palestine, they were 
thereafter to be scattered over the face of 
the globe, with no country and no national 
ensign of their own. Such was the fiat of 
the nations in 1930 and this decree was 
fulfilled to the letter. 


The Annihilation of Spain. 

Arrival of the " Death Angels " over Spain. Span- 
iards cross the Pyrenees into France. The 
doom of Weyler and his cohorts. "Remember 
the Maine." Madrid and the principal cities of 
Spain in ashes. Portugal's action applauded. 
No more aerial warships. 

ON the 2 1 st day of May, 1930, a re- 
markable sight presented itself over 
the Pyrenean range of mountains on the 
northern boundary of Spain, dividing that 
country from her northerly neighbor, "la 
belle France." High above the peaks of 

A , e that natural barrier be- 

Arrival of it 

tween those two coun- 

tries, and visible to the 
" Death Angels." naked eye> couldbe seen 

what appeared to be a large flock of birds 
of enormous size, moving swiftly and silently 
in a southerly direction. 

Vast multitudes of Spaniards who were 
crossing the Pyrenees to seek shelter in 
French territory, gazed with awe upon the 
ominous sight presented by these "death 
angels " as they proceeded south on their 
errand of destruction. They knew only 
too well the character of these deadly mes- 
sengers of war whose use had been prohib- 
ited in battle by all civilized nations. In 
the case of Spain they were not used for 
purposes of warfare but merely as instru- 


ments of punishment for her wanton viola- 
tion of the Treaty. 

During the preceding thirty days the 
volume of immigration from Spain into 
France had kept an unbroken stream. On 
the 2 ist day of May, 1930, the appointed 
day of doom, a large share of the Spanish 
population had found its way across the 
border into France, and some of the prov- 
inces about Madrid, notably Segovia, Cas- 
tille and Salamanca, were as innocent of 
population as the desert of Sahara is of 

On that memorable day of May, 1930, 
the cities of Spain might easily have been 

Spanish Cities bought up for a song or 
a jack lantern. Weyler 
w and his ferocious cut- 

For a Cent. throats, (the same imps 
who blew up our Maine and martyred 266 
brave American sailors), were the only be- 
ings who remained in Spain on that day of 
doom. The gang had the run of the king- 
dom for a few brief hours and were prob- 
ably amusing themselves very much after 
the manner of rats who enjoy the exclusive 
privilege of a sinking ship. 

The Butcher and his satellites were hold- 
ing high carnival in the regal apartments of 
the Royal Palace in doomed Madrid, when 
the serial war craft of America, England 
and the Allied nations, silently stood guard 
and floated over the city, veritable angels 
of death, fearful to behold. 


The cellars of the Royal Palace had been 

ransacked and wines of the choicest vintage 

.. . ... were being guzzled by 

Handwriting , „, ? & . . , J 
the Weyler brigands. 

Amidst revelry a n d 
the Wall. shouting, arid the din of 

rattling castenets, the mazes of fandangos 
were performed by voluptuous and sinuous 
Castillian sirens, from whose wild eyes 
blazed forth that baleful light, incited by 
wine and unholy passion. These dark, 
olive-skin belles in their terpsichores before 
the Butcher and his aides, were as innocent 
of habiliments as Madame Eve when that 
exalted personage made her debut in Eden. 
In the midst of this debauchery, and while 
revelry was yet at its zenith, history again 
repeated itself. Suddenly, like a pro- 
longed flash of lightning, the revelers saw 
distinctly the handwriting on the wall. It 
was an inscription that carried terror and 
consternation into the hearts of the Wey- 
lerites and read : " Remember the Maine." 
At this critical and interesting part of the 
program, Capt. Sigsbee, (then eighty-one 
years of age,) who in 1930 commanded the 
aerial warship "Maine," and who had been 
especially selected for that mission, gave 
the signal and from her kelson the serial 
" Maine " dropped a little surprise package 
containing one hundred and thirty pounds 
of dynamite upon the Royal Palace of Spain. 
Weyler and his gang, one moment later, 
were roasting in company with their fore- 


fathers. Such, then, was the fate of Wey- 

ler, the destroyer of our noble "Maine," an 

M arch fiend whose cruel 

..... orders were blindly 
Spanish Mules obeyed ^ Qthers of his 

Killed. ilk, carrying to unhappy 

Cuba a degree of misery, starvation and 
death that shocked the entire world. 

The British serial warships, as well as 
those of Germany, Russia, Austria, Italy, 
France, Holland, Greece and Japan, took 
their signal from the first shot or discharge 
of dynamite dropped by the " Maine," and 
joined forces with the American aerial war- 
ships in the total annihilation of Madrid. 
The scene of destruction that followed the 
attack of these serial warships baffles all 
belief. Indeed, naught may come within 
the scope of human imagination that can 
depict the horrors, wholesale slaughter and 
utter desolation that may be wrought by 
aerial warships. Ships floating in the air 

... M two miles over a city and 

It's riurder , ... . ., f. ., 

dropping within its limits 

in . huge charges of dynam- 

The Air. j te ^ are f ear f u j engines of 

destruction. In the twinkle of an eye they 
can turn stately churches, lofty buildings, 
beautiful homes, hospitals, colleges, parks 
and pleasure resorts into ashes, and still 
vastly more terrible would be the loss 
of life. 

The bare thought that human beings with 
souls to save and a God to answer to, might, 


in a flash, be hurled into eternity by these 
atrial dynamite ships, without a moment's 
warning, and their habitations turned into 
charnel-houses, is in itself sufficient to make 
one's flesh creep. 

The Washington treaty of 1924, forbid- 
ding forever the use of this barbarous 
method of warfare and threatening with de- 
struction any nation that employed it, was 
a wise and humane compact. 

Spain's flagrant violation of the interna- 
tional treaty in 1929, when she wantonly 
destroyed Fez and Tangier, was universally 
condemned. On the other hand, the de- 
struction and razing of Spain in 1930, as a 
punishment for her bad faith, received the 
warmest commendations of the world. It 
was fully realized that Spain's chastisement 
fitted her case as perfectly as the bark fits 
the tree that it encircles. 

Yet, the razing of Spain in 1930 fills 

one's better nature with sadness. The 

-, „ . widespread destruction 

Too Bad , , • 1 1 ■ 

of a kingdom replete 

a ou with historic memories, 

Spain. r j c k - m treasure-troves of 

art and science, dotted with thriving cities, 
fertile plains, lovely vales and teeming with 
beautiful homes, appeals to heart, as well 
as imagination. Although richly meriting 
her fate in 1930, Spain's doom in that year 
deeply stirred the hearts of all humanity, 
but the lesson it taught was that the world 
would never tolerate the use in war of 


atrial dynamite warships, and this lesson 
proved a salutary one. 

From Cadiz to Saragossa, and from Ali- 
cante to Corunna, the deadly serial ships 
pressed on their way, sweeping destruction 
before them. The chief cities of Spain, 
namely, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Ma- 
laga, Murcia, Cartagena, Granada, Cadiz 
and Saragossa, were all destroyed in rapid 
succession, after the fate of Madrid had 
been decided. The costly palaces of the 
Madrid grandees crumbled into dust from 
only a few dynamite discharges of these 

Sad indeed it was to witness the destruc- 
tion of the magnificent paintings in the 
Royal Art Gallery of Madrid, containing as 
it did in 1930 three thousand chef-d'ceuvres 
of the world's immortal artists. The gal- 
lery contained the best examples of Titian, 
Raphael, Rubens, Muerillo, Van Dyck, 
Veronese and Tenier, a grand collection of 
rare paintings that were valued at $300,- 
000,000, and that had required several hun- 
dreds of years to collect. 

Strange to say, in 1930, there was no ca- 
thedral in Madrid for the air-ships to de- 
stroy. For some reason, unknown even to 
Spaniards, their national capital had never 
enjoyed this luxury. It is a maxim, old as 
the hills, that shoemakers are usually the 
ones who wear the shabbiest shoes ; the ill- 
dressed man in a community is very apt to 
be the tailor ; the most neglected man dur- 


ing sickness is oftentimes the physician, and 
the man who invariably neglects to make 
his will is the lawyer. Following in the 
line of this well-established rule, it ceases 
to be a surprise that priest-ridden Spain, 
the first-born of Rome, should find herself 
without a cathedral within the limits of her 
national capital. If the cathedral of Madrid 
escaped the palsied touch of the dynamite 
air-ships the reason therefor was simple 
enough. Madrid never possessed one. 

Portugal escaped the ravages of the dyna- 
mite air-ships, and in 1999 that kingdom 
Ordered West still proudly guarded the 
western shores 01 the 

y Iberian peninsula. I n 

Portugal. the S p r i n g 0I tne year 

1898, Portugal endeared herself to every 
American heart when her government or- 
dered Admiral Cervera and his squadron to 
sail away from her possessions, the Cape de 
Verde islands, and "go west." Cervera 
had to face the music, and it was with heavy 
hearts that the mariners on board of the 
Oquendo, Marie de Teresa, Vizcaya, Colon, 
and the torpedo destroyers, Pluton and 
Furore, weighed anchor and, like Columbus, 
set their faces toward the Western Hemi- 
sphere, but, this time, with the certainty that 
their noble vessels never again would plough 
their prows in European waters. 

The inglorious fate of Spain in 1930 ever 
after proved a warning to all other nations. 
In 1999 air-ships navigated the "blue 

66 looking forward. 

ethereal " in every quarter of the globe. 
It was a safe, economical and swift method 
.. M of transportation, but af- 

„ . ter the destruction of 

" Spain, in 1 930, aerial war- 

Warsnips. ships were put out of com- 

mission and condemned. In 1999 so strin- 
gent were the international laws against 
their use that the mere possession of an 
aerial warship by any nation was likely to 
embroil others in a war of extermination 
and on suspicion alone a most rigid investi- 
gation was instituted. 


Europe in 1999. 

The Pope Casts his Lot in the New World. Com- 
plications in Europe Rendered his Residence in 
Rome Undesirable. No Refuge in Europe Avail- 
able for his Holiness. Generous Offer of the 
Southern States of the American Union. The 
Papal See transferred to Rio Janeiro in 1945. 

THE relations of the United States of the 
Americas with Italy in 1999 were of a 
character that demand more than a passing 
notice, going far to illustrate the political 
eminence that had been attained in that 
year by the great American Republic. 

In the year 1927, the long standing and 
severe tension that had existed between the 
Papacy and the Italian government ever 
since Napoleon III in 1870 withdrew his 
French garrison from the Holy City, be- 
came greatly intensified and had reached 
an acute stage that proved beyond human 

The strained relations between the Vati- 
can and the Quirinal had reached a critical 
stage. The fierce struggle between Church 
and State had attained a point of utmost 
tension. It became obvious, even in that 
year, that the break and parting of the 
ways could not be very distant. In 1927 
the Popes of Rome had already been pris- 
oners in the palace of the Vatican for a 

68 looking Forward. 

period of over fifty years. Patience in their 
case had ceased to be a virtue. Rome had 
long been a house divided against itself and 
its rule under two kings could not always 
endure. The delicate position of the Pope 
became a most unenviable one. The inso- 
lence of the Roman rabble even found its 
way under the glorious dome of St. Peter, 
where, on Palm Sunday, in the year 1923 
Pope Pius X was insulted by a clique from 
the Roman slums. That the Holy Pontiff, 
the spiritual ruler and sovereign of 328,000, 
000 Catholics, should experience insult in 
St. Peter's, his citadel of strength and 
power, proved a scandal beyond belief. 

Convinced that his temporal power was 

forever broken, Pope Leo XIV in the year 

1945 decided, after con- 

suiting a Conclave of 

Decides Cardinals, to abandon 

to Leave. the c " ty Q f Romulus and 

Remus and to shake from his sandals the 

dust of ancient Rome. It was at first 

thought that the College of Cardinals would 

check their baggage and take the overland 

route to Avignon, in southern France, an 

honor which many centuries before had 

already fallen to the lot of that ancient 


But it was otherwise decreed and 
great was the astonishment of the world 
when its nerves were thoroughly startled 
by the startling news that Pope Leo XIV 
had elected to remove the Papal See 

EUROPE IX iggg. gg 

from Rome and to establish it in the 
United States of the Americas. The 
world's astonishment was akin to con- 
sternation when the news of this radical 
change of base was first announced and it 
was learned that the Vatican intended to 
cast its lot in the new world. 

A proposition to transplant the Papal See 
from its ancient anchorage in the Italian 
It Startles peninsula into the new 

~. world would have been 

scouted in 1899 with 
scorn and derision as the 
wild phantasy of a babbling maniac. People 
living in 1899 might perhaps have seriously 
entertained a proposition to remote the 
pyramids of Egypt from their ancient 
foundations and transfer them to the sand- 
lots of San Francisco, to open up a Chinese 
laundry in the King's Chamber ; a proposi- 
tion to dispatch an army of laborers with 
shovels to the crater of Vesuvius and at- 
tempt to extinguish that volcano by shovel- 
ing in sand, might, in 1899, have been re- 
garded as a plausible undertaking ; the at- 
tempt of a delegation of Protestant minis- 
ters to personally convert the Sultan of 
Turkey from Mohamedanism and induce 
him to attend a camp-meeting, might have 
commended itself to all good citizens in 
1899, but the startling proposition to re- 
move the Papal Court from ancient Rome 
to South America, appeared to all minds in 
1899 as the most improbable of all improba- 



bilities, yet in 1945, (forty-six years later,) 

the public mind was better prepared for this 

great change and the removal of the Court 

of Rome in that year to Rio Janeiro was 

entertained in better grace and in a more 

conciliatory spirit. 

In 1945 tne position of the Papacy in 

Rome was no longer endurable. The 

„ , , , sacred person of the 

Rome Unsafe „ , ■«• i_ 1 

Pontiff became no longer 

or safe within the precincts 

the Pontiff. of the E terna l city. 

The Vatican had been frequently violated 
by mobs from the banks of the Tiber and 
the slums of Rome, over which the Italian 
government could effect no control. The 
revered head of the church, like his Divine 
Master while on earth, knew not where to 
lay his head. 

Europe in 1945 had no refuge or shelter 
to offer to His Holiness. Russia, the home 
of the Greek church, could offer him no 
asylum, where one of his exalted rank 
might dwell in peace. Austria, that stead- 
fast and ever faithful son of the church, 
would gladly have sheltered the Papal 
Court, assuring it permanent safety and a 
splendor commensurate with its prestige, but, 
unfortunately for Austria in 1945 that 
country was rent in twain, a shadow of its 
former greatness. Hungary had long en- 
joyed her richly merited independence and 
in that year had become a leading European 

EUROPE IN 1999. 71 

The eyes of the Papacy could not turn 
to Spain for succor in 1945. Spain in that 
year was reduced to a barren waste, having 
expiated her crime of 1930, that of em- 
ploying powerful fulminants from air-ships 
to destroy two African cities. France in 
1945 had no refuge to offer the Pope As 
a result of two unfortunate wars, she had 
passed into the custody of Germany, occu- 
pying the position of a mere vassal. 

Realizing the serious difficulties which 
environed the Papal See in 1945, the 
Catholic states of the southern tier of 
the United States of the Americas, 
known as South America, made an urgent 
appeal that the Court of Rome might be 
removed into their midst. 

Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, 

Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, 

TL „ .. Parasua and Patagonia 

The South , P , L .. h x . 

levied contributions 

among the faithful and 
Kescue. between them the muni- 
ficient sum of $500,000,000 was raised, to 
be placed at the disposal of the Pope. 
Accompanying this gift offering was sent 
an earnest petition and prayer that the 
Pope would consent to abide in the new 
world, where a splendid reservation con- 
sisting of 17,000 square miles of choice 
lands had been placed at his disposal in the 
neighborhood of Rio Janeiro. 

In the petition of the South American 
States praying His Holiness to acquiesce in 


this important project, it was pointed out 
that the Pope would be domiciled upon the 
only continent which was catholic in its en- 
tirety, with no creed to oppose, and, in re- 
moving the throne of St. Peter to Rio 
Janeiro, the Pope would occupy the position 
of a patriarch surrounded by his faithful 
children. The invisible, but none the less 
galling fetters, that had enslaved the Pope 
since 1870, making him virtually a prisoner 
in the Vatican, would be entirely removed. 
In the State of Brazil he might rule a 
principality of no mean proportions, far 
larger and immeasurably more wealthy than 
the Papal kingdom of 1870 when Pius IX 
was yet King of Rome. The catholic citi- 
zens of South America represented fully the 
many advantages of removing the Papal 
Court from the old into the new world. 

It will be recollected that in 1999 the 
total population of the United States of the 
Americas amounted to 531,000,000. Of 
this vast population at least 175,000,000 
citizens residing in South America were ad- 
herents of the church of Rome. 

The liberal offer that came from the 

South American States received the utmost 

T . p attention from the Papal 

authorities. To with- 
Accepts draw from that ancient 

the Offer. c j t y seemec | \[\ ic t } ie U p . 

rooting of all traditions. The irreligious 
were prone to make merry over the propo- 
sition, predicting with strange irreverence, 

EUROPE IN 1999. 73 

that in Rio Janeiro the Pope would feel like 
a cat in a strange garret. But with such 
innuendoes we have nothing in common. 
Let history proceed undisturbed in its course. 

It required a heroic sacrifice to give up 
Rome, filled with the most precious historic 
memories, a city in which lies enshrined 
the dust of St. Peter's successors. This 
step meant the abandonment of that mag- 
nificent cathedral, which in 1999 still 
formed an aureole of glory about the Eter- 
nal City. But Rome in 1945 was no longer 
a safe tabernacle for the Papacy. Its mobs 
were unbridled in their license. The per- 
son of the Pontiff was no longer safe within 
the walls of the Vatican. The Italian 
government proved to be an abettor, 
if not an instigator, of these outrages. 

With a dark, threatening cloud hovering 

over the throne of St. Peter in Europe, and 

.„ „ . , on the other hand, bright 
All Headed skies and a most alluring 

for and tempting prospect 

the West. eagerly awaiting its 

transferment to Rio de Janeiro, after long 
hestitation and endless Conclaves, the 
Sacred College of Cardinals, (the Pope con- 
curring,) gave its official sanction in 1945 
to the removal of the Papal See to the 
Western Hemisphere, under the aegis of 
the great American Constitution, the noblest 
document ever written by the fallible pen of 
man, a charter which protects and defends 
all who are worthy and they who seek its 
sheltering folds. 4 

chapter xi. 
England's Domain in 1999. 

England Rules Supreme in Africa in 1999. Electric 
Railroads Built by American Engineers Cover 
the Dark Continent. Fi-ance Suffers Two Water- 
loos. England's Rule in India Unshaken in the 
Twentieth Century. 

IN 1999 England was the ruler of Africa 
and her domain over the Dark Continent 
was indisputable. From the Delta of the 
Nile to Cape Town, from Abyssinia to Li- 
beria, the British lion was free to roam and 
roar throughout the enormous, heart-shaped 
African continent. From Alexandria to 
Cape Town became, in 1999, a compara- 
tively short journey over the electric rail- 
roads which in that year traversed the en- 
tire length of the Nile basin, with import- 
ant stations at Berber and Khartoum, 
Uganda, Zambo to Pretoria, thence to the 
Terminal of the roads at Cape Town. 
This electric railroad through the Nile basin, 
the lake regions and heart of the African 
continent, was completed and in operation 
in 1930, after a sacrifice in its construction 

It Reduced of 19,000 lives and an 
outlay of $152,000,000. 
It proved to be, how- 
Census. ever) tne backbone of 

Africa, the vertebral column from which 
scores of other electric railroad branches 

England's domain in 1999. 75 

reached out both east and west, like the 
ribs of a mastodon. 

The great presiding genius and leading 
spirit in African railroads was Cecil Rhodes, 
the same who was regarded as being the 
most prominent colonial Englishman. It 
was through his perseverance and untiring 
energy that the great system of African 
railroads was created in 1930. Rhodes 
was a really great man. Thousands court- 
ed his favor and smile, and tens of thous- 
ands trembled at his frown. Throughout 
Southern Africa so great in 1899 was his 
power and influence that he was called the 
" Deputy Almighty." 

In the construction of these African elec- 
tric railroads America played an important 
role. Cecil Rhodes was at first inclined to 
award the contracts for rails, copper wires, 
cars and general equipment to English 
manufacturing firms but his worthy patrio- 
tic sentiments soon vanished when it was 
demonstrated clear as sunlight, even early 
as 1898 that America could produce a far 
superior grade of machinery in much less 
time and at much less cost. In 1901 Cecil 
Rhodes awarded all his heavy contracts to 
American firms. In other words, England 
furnished the capital and America prac- 
tically built the entire system of African 
railroads in 1930. 

The first " eye opener " in the line of 
American competition against British ma- 
chinery came into prominence in the spring 


of 1899, when work had already commenced 
on the north division of the great trunk 
line through Africa. The Atbara bridge 
and the first lesson in industrial economy 
that it taught, will not soon be forgotten. 
Bids were invited from British and Ameri- 

America can . brid S e builders in 

April, 1899. It was re_ 

presented to all competi- 

the World. torg that the proposed 

bridge must be completed in the shortest 
time possible. 

When the bids were opened it was dis- 
covered that the English engineers required 
seven months to complete the work, while 
their American competitors guaranteed to 
complete and deliver the bridge in forty- 
two days from date of signing the contract 
and the work was to be completed for a 
much less sum than the price demanded by 
the English builders. 

The lesson of the Atbara bridge was not 

lost upon the great " Deputy Almighty" of 

South Africa and Cecil Rhodes became the 

A means during the first 

_ , . quarter of the twentieth 

Peaceful , r 

century of securing many 

Victory. million dollars to the 

American trade. Africa's most urgent 
needs in 1900 were railroads and mission- 
aries. England supplied a very superior 
article of the latter, while in the railroad 
field no country could equal the American 

England's domain in 1999. 77 

In the nineteenth century it had been 

the unpleasant experience of France to 

suffer at the hands of England two Water- 

loos. One was the 
Prance great and on]y Waterlo0) 

Eats which drenched the soil 

-Humble Pie." of Belgium with the 
blood of many brave men. Waterloo, Jr., 
overtook the French soldiers at Fashoda, 
on Africa's soil in 1899. When in that 
year England ordered France to leave Fa- 
shoda without any further ceremony a vic- 
tory was won by England, bloodless, but 
none the less effective. 

After the Fashoda incident France grad- 
ually lost her African provinces, leaving 
England in undisputed sway over a contin- 
ent that in wealth and resources proved far 
superior to her great Indian Empire. In 
1999 Alexander II, of Great Britain, ruled 
over a mighty empire. In the nineteenth 
century British kings and queens were just 
plain, every day royalties, transacting a 
legitimate business in that line and other- 
wise enjoying the respect and confidence of 
their patrons. It was generally understood 
that the " king can do no wrong." This 
was indisputable for the simple reason they 
never did anything at all. But when great 
Africa became a British province, it was 
then felt necessary to add still another title 
to the British Crown and in 1999 Britain's 
Sovereign became known to his chums and 
acquaintances as King of Great Britain and 


Ireland, D. F., Emperor of India, Mogul 
of Africa and Right Bower of the Americas, 
because, in 1999 none of England's import- 
ant deals were regarded as complete with- 
out a Yankee plum in the pie. Some- 
times England contrived, as the phrase 
goes, to "get her foot in it " but cousin 
Jonathan across the salt pond, always man- 
aged to yank her out. 

In 1999 England still held a firm grip up- 
on India. The secret of Samson's hercu- 

„ c , lean strength was due to 

How England J _, , iiL \ , 

„ . . the tact that alawn-mow- 

nolds 1 , . j 

er had never tampered 

India - with his hair. But the 

secret of the British lion's power in India 

did not consist in the fact that the lordly 

beast cultivated a full mane. 

India in 1999, as in the year 1899, still 
continued to remain the world's most bril- 
liant illustration that nations which are di- 
vided among themselves must inevitably 
fall. In 1899 the question was repeatedly 
asked, how can England with a mere corp- 
oral's guard, hold together the vast, mystic 
India under her sway ? How can a nation 
of 40,000,000 people, like England, hold 
under her sway a far distant continent like 
India with its population of 350,000,000 
people ? 

In 1999 India still remained a house di- 
vided against itself and England was boss 
of the whole ranch. The eighty different 
principalities of India, each one speaking 


a different dialect and governed by alien 
potentates, fired by mutual hatreds which 
were fanned by fierce jealousies and the 
immutable laws of caste, were still as far 
apart in 1999, in point of harmony and co- 
hesive action, as the Himalayan peaks are 
remote from the spice groves of Ceylon. 

„ If at any period in the 

Cannot . ,, /, r • , ,, 

eighteenth, nineteenth or 

twentieth centuries these 
Together. principalities of India 

could have united themselves together in a 
common cause and arisen in the might of 
their power against British rule, England 
would be driven out of India in ten days' 
time. India's 350,000,000 population re- 
presents an enormous mass, but, as long as 
it remains divided into practically eighty 
different nations, all of them animated by 
bitter hatreds and antagonisms, England 
will experience no trouble in retaining abso- 
lute control of her large but very acrimoni- 
ous Indian family. 

The power and stamina of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, which already dominated the 

, _ world in 1999 through 

Anglo-Saxons ., , „ f v c X 

* the vast Republic of the 

^ u e Americas and the world- 

the World. wide British Empire, ex- 
emplified itself in a high degree in the Brit- 
ish government of India. Only one des- 
perate struggle was ever attempted against 
British rule in India and the disastrous fail- 
ure of the mutiny in 1857 was yet fresh in 
the minds of many in 1999. 


The great, mighty India, the home of 
mysteries that baffle all reason ; the fount 
which holds the sacred Ganges and boasts of 
Benares' holy soil, was still under the lion's 
paw in 1999 and bid fair to remain under 
British rule for many centuries yet to come. 
Mystic India, the land of the loftiest moun- 
tains, deepest jungles and broadest plains ; 
the home of Pharsee and Thug ; the lair of 
lion, tiger, leopard and elephant ; the Eden 
of the deadly cobra, India, the world's 
vast and mystic continent, remained a 
British province throughout the twentieth 

chapter xii. 
Back in God's Country Again. 

A Grand Constitution that could Govern the 
World. The American Flag must Rule the 
Western Hemisphere and None Save God can 
Prevent this. America's Perilous Over-confi- 
dence. Our Great Navy in 1999. England's 
Friendly Offices in 1S9S. America and Great 
Britain Firm Friends Forevermore. 

HAVING thus briefly reviewed the con- 
dition of Europe in 1999 ; the changes 
that had been effected in the map of that 
continent ; the cordial relations existing 
between the American Eagle and the Brit- 
ish Lion in that year ; the acknowledged 
supremacy of America and England over 
the entire world ; the obliteration of Spain 
in 1930 ; the fall of France in 1935 ; the 
banishment of moslem rule from Europe 
and the grandeur of British rule in Africa 
and India, let us again return to God's own 
country, The United States of the Ameri- 
cas, which chosen land, in 1999, became 
the wealthiest, most prosperous and power- 
ful of all nations upon this inhabitable 
globe. Having traveled abroad in the pre- 
ceding chapter to secure a glimpse of the 
world's condition in that year, we gladly set 
foot again in the new world to examine 
more closely and accurately into the status 
of the great American Colossus. 


If there are any who believe that the 

great and infallible constitution of the 

., ,, , . United States of Ameri- 

It Could , - , , 

ca is not broad and 

strong enough to include 
the World. j n j ts SCO p e an( j govern- 
ment every country in our Western Hemi- 
sphere from Alaska to Patagonia ; if there 
are any Americans who believe that Central 
and South American Republics can never be 
governed under our American Republic, 
employing the same language and the same 
coinage, all sheltered under the noble flag of 
Bunker Hill, to such unbelievers in the fu- 
ture expansion of America we appeal in 
vain through these pages. They fail to 
understand that America has a great duty 
to perform and is destined to become the 
light of the world. 

To any fair minded and candid 
student of history the conclusion must 
come with force that America with 

,, . ., u . her forty-five states in 
It is the Hand J , , 

1899 was a mere local 

affair compared with the 
Destiny. certainty of all the other 

republics joining under one government 
with ours in 1999. 

America in 1899 was yet in the cradle of 
her infancy, occupying a modest and nar- 
row strip of territory extending from Maine 
to Florida ; fringed by Canada on the 
north and laved by the waters of the Mexi- 
can gulf on the south. 


Her position on this continent was that 
of a Gulliver by whose side the other 
southern republics looked like Liliputians. 
Providing that the giant is gifted not only 
with strength and a stout heart, but gov- 
erned, also, by good principles, why should 
the Liliputian Republics of Central and 
South America fear ? Would it not be 
better for them to make common cause 
with their great American neighbor and 
live under one flag ? 

In 1899 the tendency of the period was 
to consolidate ; the " trust epidemic" then 

Uncle Sam's ra ^ ed f *s ^ I *! 
aim 01 that period, at 

* least in commercial af- 

rrust. fairs, was to gather to- 

gether the small concerns and unite them 
into a whole. The United States of the 
Americas in 1999 was largely built on the 
trust principle. Uncle Sam was running 
the biggest concern in the government line 
and the little South American Republics 
had simply been gathered in by the big 
fellow. They all were merged into one great 
American nation, governed by the same 
constitution, and all lifted up their gaze 
with patriotic pride to the Stars and Stripes. 
At this juncture it might be interesting 
to learn by what means and in what man- 
ner was this vast American Republic pro- 
tected by sea and land in 1999. Conscious 
of her vast resources and enormous strength, 
America from the close of the Civil War in 


1865 to the year 1885 remained practically 
unarmed, keeping on hand a mere corpor- 
al's guard in the shape of an army. Her 
navy up to 1882 consisted of an aggregation 
of warships of more or less antiquity, mere 
washtubs with smooth bore guns, whose 
ordnance, discharged against a modern 
battleship, would have about the same 
effect as throwing boiled peas at a brick 

Twenty years after the close of the Civil 
War, in 1885, America had commenced to 

,, , - rub her eyes and to 

Uncle Sam , , J , ., 

awaken from her penl- 

Wakes ous Rip Van Winkle 

U P* siesta of two decades 

and to realize, at last, that a strong navy 
had become a national necessity. Over- 
confidence is a dangerous foe to national 
safety. America, a land filled with liberty- 
loving patriots and master mechanics, set 
to work none too soon to provide herself 
with a navy; fighting machines that in point 
of speed and prowess would compare favor- 
ably with the output of the best foreign 
shipyards. It became obvious to the veri- 
est child that if our national dignity at 
home or abroad were to be maintained, and, 
if we did not proposed to be bluffed by small 
concerns like Chile and Spain, the best 
thing to do about a navy would be to build 
it at once, forthwith, "and on the word 

Congress took spirited action in the mat- 



ter, making liberal appropriations for the 
construction of a first grade fleet of modern 
warships, armed and equipped with best 
and most penetrating rifles. This patriotic 
and sensible policy had been inaugurated 
none too soon. 

The month of January, 1898, found 
America in possession of a small, but highly 
c J. efficient navy and on the 

brink of war. What we 
had in the line of war 
Powerful. vessels was of the best, 

but America could proudly boast of some- 
thing immeasurably better than a few fine 
ships and heavy guns. We possessed what 
no Congress or Parliament could make to 
order or purchase by appropriation, and 
that was a keen, patriotic sentiment 
throughout both the American army and 

"The man behind the gun," anxious to 
lay down his life by the side of the power- 
j., T ful breech-loading de- 

stroyer he loved so well 
American , , • , .. ,, 

to train and groom; "the 

nero. man behind the gun " 

who loved and cared for his mighty weap- 
on as a father would his child ; watching 
it by night and day, praying for the hour 
when he might belch from its throat missiles 
of destruction into the enemy's ranks, — 
" the man behind the gun," God bless him, 
is America's own true born. In the hour of 
peril, at Manila, Santiago and at Puerto 


Rico, these heroes, man and gun, did their 
duty right nobly and well. In 1999 the 
world still rang with the valor of their 

But America in 1898 found herself still 
unprepared. The war issue was lodged 
with a power of the third magnitude. Left 
alone with the Dons the tale would soon be 
told. Only one year before our war with 
the yellow and red flag, an American 
gentleman summed up the situation in a 
very concise manner : " When we get at 
the Spaniards, they'll hold together just 
long enough to get kicked to pieces." 

But Spain had other partners, two 
powerful nations, who, for selfish 
reasons, would have been only too glad 
to give Uncle Sam a punch in the ribs. 
Germany, having been fortified by a bribe 
from Spain for her co-operation against 
America, having been promised by Spain as a 
reward for assistance the entire group of 
the Philippines, was only too eager to close 
the bargain. The Teutons were spoiling 
for a fight with Uncle Sam, ostensibly in 
behalf of Spain, but more especially for a 
grab at the Philippines. France, on the 
other hand, distinctly recollected that she 
owned and held the bulk of Spanish securi- 
ties and if the Dons in their brush with 
America took "a header," these Spanish 
securities would not be worth a last year's 
bird nest. And now comes an important 
question: Was America prepared in 1899 


to clash in naval combat with the combined 
forces of Spain, France and Germany ? 
Josh Billings would have made short shift 
of his reply by saying : " Well, hardly." 

Spain's two unhappy partners, in their 
dilemma then turned their eyes and steps 

Called at I? wa F. d a . l ' ltt } e island 

the Captain's ^ at h + eS s . ^ htl >' n ° rth of 
f T their territory. France 

and Germany heard the 
growl of the British Lion and before they 
joined Spain in a war against America, 
John Bull must be consulted. As a result 
of their interview this ill-mated pair became 
well convinced that England would put up 
with none of their nonsense and would not 
remain neutral should they join Spain in 
hostilities against America. France and 
Germany became converted to other views 
and very wisely decided to remain at home, 
meek as lambs, while Uncle Sam was carv- 
ing up Spain to suit the queen's taste. 

In 1999 our American patriots did not 
propose to get caught in the trap of Janu- 
ary, 1898, in which America found herself. 
In the year first named America was able to 
meet in war any combination of European 
nations that might hazard themselves in 
the field against her. The unfortunate 
spectacle of a great nation like America, on 
the eve of war, rushing around as we cer- 
tainly did in March, 1898, buying up odds 
and ends of war vessels and fairly begging 
to buy smokeless powder at any price, will 


never again be repeated in this great 
country. The lesson of 1898 was yet fresh 
in the minds of all in 1999. Americans of 
the twentieth century were too shrewd to 
get caught napping again in that manner. 
In 1999 the United States of the Ameri- 
cas embraced eighty-five states. Canada 

~. VT had been divided into 

The New . „, 

two American States, 
American , tt * a wr <. 

namely, .hast and West 

fNavy. Canada. The original 

territory of the United States in that year 
consisted of sixty-two sovereign states ; 
Texas alone had been divided into three 
separate states. To these were added the 
six states of Central America, namely, the 
newly created American States of Mexico, 
Nicaragua, Salvador, Costo Rica, Guat- 
emala and Honduras. Next came the newly 
admitted American States of Colombia, 
Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, 
Chile, Argentine, Uruguay, Paraguay and 
Patagonia, making a grand total of eighty- 
five states, which formed in 1999 the United 
States of the Americas. 

By enactment of Congress provision had 
been made that every State in the Union 
must build, equip and maintain at its own 
cost at least one battleship of the most 
modern type and unrivalled power ; one 
armored cruiser of the highest speed, (35 
knots per hour,) and three submarine de- 
stroyers of the most approved pattern and 
of the most enterprising character. 


8 9 

As a result of this wise policy the navy 
of the Americas in 1999 consisted of eighty- 
five (85) first grade battleships ; one hun- 
dred and seventy (170) of the swiftest and 
most powerful cruisers ; two hundred and 

_.. . . « fifty-five (255) submarine 
Five hundred , \ y ■'•" , , 

, „ destroyers, popularly 

and Ten ,, , • ,, . .. J 

called in that year, "up- 

Warships. lifters." Such was the 

numerical strength of the American Navy 
during the closing period of the twentieth 
century, on a peace footing. In the remote 
possibility of a war, provision had been 
made to mobilize the American fleet upon 
a far more formidable standard of efficiency. 
The total number of our war craft of all 
classes aggregated in that year, five hun- 
dred and ten (510) vessels. 

When one reflects that the coast-line of 
the great Republic, along the Atlantic and 
Pacific shores of the Americas, embraces 
fully 34,000 miles, every mile of which was 
entitled to our national defence, it will be 
recognized that the American Navy in 1999 
was barely in keeping with the vast propor- 
tions of the Republic it had been created to 
defend. Indeed, it was regarded as being a 
modest establishment of its kind, judged by 
the standards of that period. 

The question very properly offers itself, 
•'If the United States of the Americas in 
1999 represented such a powerful nation, 
wealthy and prosperous, potent in enter- 
prise and industry, what use had it for a 



navy of five hundred and ten warships ? " 
This question is easily answered by quoting 
an old and sterling axiom : "In time of 
peace we must prepare for war." 

The folly of March 1898, when America, 
on the eve of war with Spain, rushed in 

KI . . . breathless haste into 

Not to be „ 

„ every European navy- 
Caught 1 , r , J 

_ yard to purchase any 

Again. thinj , that CQuld float a 

gun, and offered haystacks of gold for 
smokeless powder, was not to be repeated 
in 1999. It was recognized in that year 
that the best guarantee for peace was to 
maintain an efficient army and powerful 
navy, to exact a proper respect for a flag 
that protected 531,000,000 American citi- 

The big American Republic in 1999 did 
not propose to place itself, with its vast 
population and interminable coast-line, in 
the humiliating condition of China, a peo- 
ple who, though mighty in population, re- 
main helpless as infants in matters of 
national defence. America did not intend 
to suffer the fate of China. Although her 
territory was vast and her population 
reckoned by the half-billion, America did 
not propose to permit European cormorants 
to pounce upon her coasts, and, as in the 
case of China, steal a whole country un- 
der the guise of civilizing it. In 1999 the 
Americas maintained a formidable army and 
navy in order to impress the fact upon the 


9 1 

world that we were not like lambs, wholly 
without means of self-defense. 

The perilous American policy, inaugurated 
after the Civil War, of existing without any 
army or navy worthy of the name, was ex- 
posed through our war with Spain. Ameri- 
cans cheerfully acknowledged the fact that 
England's friendliness tended to bring that 
war to an early close. Even Spain in 1898 
professed to hold our army in exalted con- 
tempt, regarding Americans as a nation 
wholly unfit for war, at best, a nation of 
wheat raisers and pork-packers. Many 
Spaniards honestly imagined that Admiral 
Cervera could sail his squadron into New 
York harbor, land his marines at Coney 
Island and after bombarding the clams and 
battling with lager kegs, march his men 
over the Brooklvn Bridge and capture City 

In 1999 Americans did not propose to 

again get caught napping, as in the ' 'good old 

Eternal days'' of 1898. They 

Vigilance remained armed and 

ready for war on drop of 
in 1000. , ~ XT . r . 

the hat. No nation in 

the former year would venture unaided 
to combat the great American Republic. 
America in the twentieth century became 

chapter xiii. 

Our Army and Navy in 1999. 

Justice done to both Schley and Sampson. The 
American victory off Santiago opens the eyes of 
the world. Emperor Wilhelm congratulates 
himself. America maintains a vigorous Monroe 

LONG before the advent of 1910 every 
trace of the bitter controversy that had 
so long disturbed American naval circles 
over the Sampson-Schley quarrel, had for- 
tunately been effaced. The hatchet had 
been buried, or figuratively speaking, had 
been thrown overboard, and in 1999 this 
unhappy feud, which tarnished the prestige 
of the world's foremost navy, had been 
obliterated. In 1999, when all heat or 
vestige of passion had passed away, this 
unfortunate episode was regarded as being 
the one and only blot that associated itself 
with the memory of a wonderful naval ex- 
ploit, the brilliant engagement on that ever 
memorable Sunday morning of July 3, 1898, 
when the Spanish squadron steamed into 
the jaws of death. 

Time accomplishes wonders. It tones 
Th down the angles ; it dulls 

_ . the keenest edge and can 

Brave Amencan even render m[] ^ bittef 

ers. animosities, which, alas, 

often sting sharper than serpent fangs. 


Long before 1900 it was universally ac- 
knowledged that gallant Admiral Schley 
had been persecuted. His tormentors, men 
of high station, became heartily ashamed 
of persecuting a brave officer who had com- 
mitted what apparently, in their judg- 
ment, appeared to be the crime of an 
nihilating the Spanish squadron off San- 

Students of history in 1 910 very naturally 
asked themselves: "If Admiral Schley 
was so bitterly assailed at the close of a 
sweeping victory, in what manner would he 
have been treated by these carping critics 
had a portion of Cervera's fleet made 
good its escape ?" 

Admiral Sampson appeared to be willing 

c , and anxious to secure 

Sampson's ,. , . L , 

credit tor a victory that 

y had been fought and won 

Absence. during his absence. But 

the question arises, would Admiral Samp- 
son have been willing to shoulder the blame if 
Cervera's vessels had escaped destruction or 
would he have saddled Admiral Schley with 
the responsibility ? The reader must form 
his own conclusions in this matter. On the 
other hand, all impartial students of his- 
tory in the twentieth century cheerfully 
accorded to Admiral Sampson full credit 
for his gallant services on blockade duty 
during that war. His responsibilities were 
great and pressing, and he discharged his 
duties with utmost fidelity. 



A pathetic story indeed is that of the 

Th " Man in the Iron Mask." 

^ «,, . , . None can read that page 
Ever Watchful of French history without 

^ e# being touched by the sad 

fate of this mysterious prisoner of state, 
who was generally supposed to be a twin 
brother of the King of France. He was 
treated by his attendants with the utmost 
deference and courtesy. His raiments were 
of the costliest fabrics. The governor of 
the citadel in which the "Man in the Iron 
Mask " was imprisoned, was obsequious in 
his attentions to the distinguished prisoner. 
His wishes were observed with the most 
scrupulous care and the Great Unknown 
ever ruled his guardians with the sceptre of 
a king. The prisoner, however, was 
obliged to wear his iron mask night and 
day. Any attempt on his part to remove 
it, meant swift and certain death. 

The feature of his confinement which, 
perhaps, directly appeals to the world's sym- 
pathy, was the human eye that watched his 
every movement. Through a hole in the door 
of his apartment, ( which was sumptuously 
furnished,) that eye never relaxed its vigil- 
ance. Night and day its ceaseless vigil 
continued until death's kindly hand relieved 
the distinguished sufferer from the terror of 
its unceasing gaze. 

And so it was with Cervera and his 
squadron. The Spanish admiral became 
the modern "Man in the Iron Mask." 


A prisoner behind the lofty hills of San- 
Watched tiago ' the eyes of Sam P" 
son's fleet watched the 

•^ narrow opening of that 

Night and Day. harbor njght and daynor 

did their vigilance relax for one second of 
time. By night the piercing eye of the electric 
search-light closely watched the harbor en- 
trance. The thoughts, the hopes and 
prayers of our noble America were all cen- 
tered upon Sampson and his brave men. 
He proved himself to be an excellent fleet 
commander and in the twentieth century 
his services were appreciated at their just 

The glorious victory at Santiago bay, oc- 
curring only sixty days after Dewey's target 
practice in Manila bay, amazed and electri- 
fied the world. England felt a genuine 

American P r ^ de in both ° f these 

_, A , achievements and pomt- 

Plymouth . A , r , 

J ing to America observed: 

Rocks. " These American roost- 

ers are from our own setting and their name 
is Plymouth Rock." When the German 
Emperor heard the great news from San- 
tiago very few men in Europe ware more 
pleased over it. His joy, however, was 
prompted by feelings of self-preservation 
rather than from exultation over the Ameri- 
can victory. Wilhelm patted himself on 
the back and shook hands with himself for 
at least five consecutive hours when he re- 
flected how narrowly he had escaped get- 


ting involved in a war with America and 
the fortunate escape of his German fleet 
from the fate that overtook Cervera's ves- 
sels. This is the reason why the German 
squadron cleared out of Manila immediately 
after Dewey sent his famous request to 
Washington to despatch the Oregon to 
Manila, " for political reasons." The "bull- 
dog of the American navy " reached Manila 
in due season but Admiral Von Deiderichs 
withdrew long before the ' ' crack of doom " 
had ploughed her way into that harbor. As 
for France in 1910 she had not yet recov- 
ered from her surprise, while to Spain these 
disasters proved a paralytic shock of a most 
severe character. From 1898 to 1930 
Spain was merely walking around to stave 
off funeral expenses. 

With a relatively strong navy of five hun- 
dred and ten (510) war ships to patrol her 
coasts in 1999, the United States of the 
. Americas were not under 

any necessity of maintain- 
ing a large standing army. 
Wanted. It was f u n y rea lized that 

an efficient sea-power must be maintained. 
With that arm of defence in her possession 
the maintenance of a large standing Ameri- 
can army can never seriously be entertained. 
It has always been a popular belief in 
America that if a foreign army of invasion 
were to land upon our shores, Americans 
would give it a very warm reception, so 
spontaneous and effusive in its character 


that a majority of the invaders would never 

find their way back home again. Many of 

them might become permanent residents in 

American soil, so deeply rooted that none 

but Gabriel's trump could marshal them 

into line again. 

Germany in 1899 hdcl the world's medal 

„ , for the finest and best 

Germany s , 

; equipped army, a magni- 

Splendid ncen t engine of war, ready 

Army. to move within an hour's 

notice, and woe to the enemy that obstructs 
its path. Without any doubt in the closing 
period of the nineteenth century the General 
staff of the German army was justly regard- 
ed as the highest authority in military sci- 
ence. Such a vast and smooth working 
engine for the destruction of human beings 
was never before known. If the sun had 
been good enough to stop twelve hours in its 
course to accommodate Joshua's beggarly 
army, that luminary would no doubt gladly 
stand still a whole week on request of the 
chief of staff of the German hosts. 

In 1899, with a population of barely 50,- 
000,000, Germany possessed an army of 
2,500,000. France with much less popula- 
tion had fully as many men under arms. 
Russia with a population of over 90,000,- 
000 had an army on a peace footing of 
3,000,000 men. The burden upon Europe 
was a most crushing one. In 1899 tr >i s 
drain was fast sapping the life of those na- 
tions, robbing their industries and peaceful 


avocations of the flower of their youth. 
This armed state in the time of peace was 
fully as ruinous as war itself. No wonder 
that the Czar of Russia urged a congress of 
the nations to convene and, if possible, de- 
vise some system to reduce these huge arm- 
aments. For this well-meaning attempt 
to relieve the military burdens of Europe 
the Russian Czar deserves much credit but, 
unfortunately, the proposition proved to be 
impracticable. The international confer- 
ence at the Hague in the summer of 1899 
secured no definite results. 

In 1999 America did not propose to fall 

., e . .. into the European snare 

No Standing , . , . . r , 

of maintaining a huge 

rmy standing army. When 

in 1999- America in 1899 was 

merely a small Republic, consisting of only 
forty-five states and a few odd territories, 
the idea of maintaining a large standing 
army, on the European plan, was scouted 
with derision. In 1899 Americans scoffed 
at Europe's military establishments as a 
symbol of Barbarism. In 1999 when the 
great American Republic included the entire 
Western Hemisphere, military rule became 
more unpopular than ever. In the twen- 
tieth, as in the nineteenth century, America 
remained firm in her adherence to the 
Monroe Doctrine. This wise policy will 
always prove one of the best safeguards of 
our American Republic. Europe must be 
kept out of the Western Hemisphere. 


America will always belong to Americans 
only. In the twentieth century the Mon- 
roe Doctrine lost none of its force, and for 
many centuries its principles will still re- 
main a living issue. 

With a Monroe Doctrine to maintain and 
defend, it is not surprising to learn that in 
1999 the United States of the Americas, 
with a population of 531,000,000, main- 
tained a small army of 150,000 men. The 
absolute freedom of America from military 
burdens in 1899 and 1999 was the glory of 
the Republic and the envy of a whole 

The object of government is to guarantee 
the utmost allowance of freedom to the 
citizen, and blessed indeed is the nation 
that can govern itself without having to 
maintain a huge standing army to hurl at 
any moment's notice at its neighbors Such 
barbarism may answer well enough for 
Europe, whose governments are founded 
upon wrong principles, but in great, free 
America, we want none of it, nor never 

America always will be the land of the 
free. Her principles of government are 
founded upon justice and equity. The voice 
of the people is heard in the land and it is 
supreme. The government of the people, 
by and for the people, is the gift of God to 
Man and the Almighty has made America 
the custodian of that priceless jewel. 

chapter xiv. 
Removal of The Capital. 

When the Stars and Stripes floated over the Entire 
Hemisphere in 1990 Washington, the National 
Capital, was removed to Mexico. The name of 
the new capital unchanged. Vera Cruz becomes 
the Seaport of Washington . The Canal com- 
pleted in 1915. The new location proves emin- 
ently satisfactory to all. The future of China 
and the Philippines. 

WHEN the good Lord created the earth 
He reserved the Western Hemi- 
sphere for the exclusive use and control of 
the Yankees. They were not slow to avail 
themselves of their opportunity. This 
comes from force of habit ; opportunities 
they allow to pass by unimproved are as 
scarce as Swiss Admirals. Americans are 
warranted to take care of themselves under 
any circumstances. 

It will surprise no one to learn that in 
1999 the Western Hemisphere had passed 
in its entirety under the dominion of the 
Stars and Stripes. Americans did not 
pounce upon and seize the continent, nor 
did they even fire one shot to secure its en- 
tire control. Canada, Central and South 
America simply gravitated towards the 
American Union and became absorbed into 
one great Republic. 

The smaller Republics of the Americas 
realized that the United States in 1899 were 


a peace-loving nation. Although its army 
was a mere corporal's guard, America had 
a population in that year aggregating 75, 
000,000. Such a large nation with an in- 
significant army could mean them no harm. 
One by one they joined our American Union 
of their own free will and volition, until 
in 199 ./ the great American Union became 
an accomplished fact. 

To attempt to rule such a vast stretch of 
country under any other than the great 
.. Constitution of the 

United States, would re- 
sult in a signal failure. 
the World. The American Constitu- 
tion, that masterpiece and perfect symbol of 
human liberty, is great enough and broad 
enough to govern the entire globe under one 
flag. Indeed as early as 1999 there were 
already strong indications that before the 
expiration of three more centuries such 
might be the eventual result. It already 
looked in that year as though the great 
American Republic would ultimately gather 
under its wings, Europe, Asia, Africa and 
the islands of Oceanica. 

However, there is a limit to human am- 
bition ; there is a boundary to all possibilities. 
Comparatively speaking, we are dealing 

only with a near future 

America , J , , ,, . 

when we behold, in 1999, 

does not want the proudflag G f America, 

the Earth. that emb i em f liberty 

which never suffered defeat, floating over 


one vast Republic from Alaska to Patagonia. 
Other dreamers may hustle for notoriety by 
claiming in an aimless way that in 2999 
the American flag will float over all the 
continents of the world. They may even 
wish to annex a few of the planets 
under the American flag, but heed them 

Daniel Webster's eloquent words : "The 
Union, now and forever, one and insepar- 
able, " reached a climax when the United 
States of the Americas consolidated in 
1999. Nor was there a discordant note in 
the grand concert of eighty-five states. 
Mason and Dixon's line became a memory 
of the past. The northern states from 
Alaska and Canada to Florida ; the middle 
states from Mexico to Costa Rica and the 
southern states from Colombia to Patagonia, 
were all linked together in the bonds of 
friendship and brotherly love. At last 
Webster's prophecy had been fulfilled ; the 
great Union had become "one and insepar- 

To the inquiring mind the question natur- 
ally offers itself : In what manner was the 
great American Republic governed in 1999 ? 
Were the commands of the Federal govern- 
ment still issued from Washington, D. C, 
or had it been found more convenient to 
transfer the seat of government to a locality 
better adapted and more central to the new 
conditions of the greater Republic ? 

In 1990, by decree of Congress of the 



IN 1999. 

By permission of the Pan- 
American Exposiiion Co. ot 
Jiuffalo, N. V 


United Americas, and at the close of a 

special national election 
Capital heM for that purposei 

transferred to both houses of Congress 
Mexico. ^y a two-thirds vote, 

elected to transfer the seat of our National 
government from Washington, D. C, to 
the city of Mexico, which in 1999, com- 
manded a position midway between the 
North and South sections of the great Re- 
public. Although transferred by act of 
Congress to the city of Mexico, our National 
Capital in 1999 still retained the glorious 
name of Washington. The name of Wash- 
ington, D. C, was changed to that of 

Statesmen in 1990 wisely decided to re- 
tain the name of Washington for the Na- 
tional Capital of the great Republic. A 
few were in favor of retaining the ancient 
name of Mexico for the new capital but the 
vast majority of our American voters in 
1990 treasured with patriotic love and ten- 
derness the revered name of the Father of 
his Country. They believed that no mat- 
ter where the capital of the Republic might 
be moved to, whether it were located in 
Brazil or in Alaska, the fame of Washing- 
ton must go with it and bear the honored 
association of that name. 

Washington, D. C. , took the new name 
of Columbia, having become a city of secon- 
dary political importance. The name of 
Washington belongs to the national capi- 


tal alone, the home of Congress, the resi- 
dence of the National Executive and forum 
of the Supreme Court of the Americas. The 
hero of Valley Forge and champion of 
American Independence was still near and 
dear to every heart in 1990, and may cen- 
turies yet unborn honor his memory. 

The city of Mexico became the Capi- 
tal of the Americas for manifold reasons, 
Mexico chiefly political, strate- 

.. A , gical and commercial. 
a Natural ^ , , u 

lo those, who, in 1899 

re. had been accustomed 

from birth to regard the United States as 
that narrow strip of country lying between 
Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, the an- 
nouncement that the capital of the Ameri- 
cas had been transferred to the city of 
Mexico, must cause a shock of unpleasant 

It is a human weakness to worship our 
idols. Woe to those who would destroy 
them. Tradition must not be tampered 
with. Americans of 1899 had been taught 
that a small and beautiful city on the 
Potomac was the capital of our Federal 
Union. To them it must come in the na- 
ture of a shock to learn that in 1990 the 
name of that city had changed to Columbia, 
and Washington, the National Capital, had 
been transferred to the State of Mexico. 

There are, however, other instances on 
record in which it has been deemed advisa- 
ble to change the capital of a great nation. 



If in the year 18 10 an intelligent Russian 
had announced to his countrymen that the 
seat of government in Russia would be 
transferred in 1812 from golden, sacred 
Moscow to bleak, cold St. Petersburg on 
the barren swamps of the Neva, his predic- 
tion would have been laughed to scorn ; 
such a statement would have encountered 
a tempest of derision. Your orthodox Rus- 
sian would have raved at the mere mention 
of such an eventuality. In 18 10 any intel- 
ligent Russian would have regarded the 
abandonment of ancient Moscow, the cus- 
todian of the Kremlin, for a barren spot on 
the shores of the Baltic, as a positive sacri- 
lege. Yet it is historically true that in 
181 2 this very thing came to pass. 

Instead of uprooting our National Capi- 
tal from a spot hallowed with sacred tradi- 

. p . . tions and transplanting 

_ . . it into a cold, sterile re- 

Sunsnine , u ( , u 

gion, asm the case 01 the 

and Flowers. Russian capital, Wash- 
ington, as a seat of government, was re- 
moved from the banks of the Potomac into 
the splendors of a tropical region, — into the 
domain of Montezuma and his brave Aztec 
warriors, where fruits and flowers chase one 
another in an unbroken circle through the 
year ; a paradise where the gales are loaded 
with perfumes of the forests in which birds 
of radiant plumage and exquisite song fill the 
air with their delicious melodies. 


Washington in 1999 was fast developing 

into a magnificent city, worthy of its proud 

. name and eminence as the 


capital of the great Ameri- 
Earthly can Republic with its pop _ 

Paradise. ulation of 531,000,000 

people. Built in the heart of the State of 
Mexico, it was surrounded by magical 
charms of scenery such as only a tropical 
paradise may develop. Its lofty domes and 
spires and stately public buildings, many of 
them constructed of huge blocks of multi- 
colored glass, were reared amidst a land 
luxuriant with the cochineal, cocoa, the 
orange and sugar-cane. 

The city of Washington in 1999 was 
hedged by nature's most subtle art. Be- 
yond the capital's limits were visible a 
gay confusion of meadows, streams and 
perpetual flowering forests. From the 
centre of the new Washington could plainly 
be seen the majestic outlines of ancient 
Popocatapetl, rising as a sombre spectre 
whose rugged head seemed to cleave 
the skies. 

Stretching far away to the right, and 
clearly visible from the observatory of the 
Executive Mansion might be seen, towering 
in its solitary grandeur, the p>eak of the 
mighty Orizaba, with its eternal shroud of 
snow descending far down its sides. How 
many centuries this mighty giant of the 
Cordilleras has stood there, a sentinel in the 
Garden of the Gods, none may tell. But 


ages and cycles of time after the busy brains 
of 1899 shall have turned to dust, Orizaba, 
with the Stars and Stripes adorning its 
summit, will still rear its proud head and 
gaze down upon millions of American pat- 
riots yet unborn. 

The transferment of the capital of the 
Americas in 1990 to the city of Mexi- 
co, was generally regard- 
ed as a master-stroke of 
ueneral policy. From a hygienic 

Approval. point of view alone, the 
change proved eminently a desirable one. 
Its removal from the malodorous swamps of 
the Potomac to the elevated plateau upon 
which the Aztec race reared their ancient 
capital, with its balmy breezes and tropical 
luxuriance, proved a most welcome change. 
It was generally conceded in 1899 that the 
site of Washington on the malaria-breeding 
banks of the Potomac, was not a happy 

In spite of great precautions several epi- 
demics had devastated the national capital 
during the decades from 1900 to 1940. 
Among other pestilential attractions of the 
Potomac swamps, great prominence was 
given to a fierce and aggressive tribe of 
mosquitoes, called " Swamp Angels," which 
in 1920 increased and multiplied greatly, to 
the absolute terror of the Washingtonites. 
It is related of these aggressive and danger- 
ous pests that in 1925 a swarm of them 
actually carried away a. sheep while the 


animal was grazing upon the White House 

But aside from its favorable hygienic con- 
siderations the central position of the city 
of Washington in the State of Mexico com- 
manding the main avenue between North 
and South America, gave it great political 
and commercial importance as the capital 
of the Americas in 1990, one that was en- 
joyed by no other rival. 

The capture and destruction of Washing- 
ton, in the State of Mexico, could not have 
.. been effected in 1999 or 

at any subsequent period. 
Became The ^ in that year be _ 

Impregnable. came impregnable, so 
rendered by a vast system or chain of fort- 
resses from the city proper to Vera Cruz, 
its seaport, a distance of about two hundred 
miles. The mountain passes and rugged 
defiles between Washington and Vera Cruz 
frowned with heavy ordnance. Dynamite 
guns were ready on every hand to scatter 
their deadly missies for the edification of 
all invaders. From Washington to Vera 
Cruz, great sentinel forts stood in the path 
of the invader, an unassailable chain, man) 7 
of them being hardly visible to the eye. 
Fortifications were constructed upon the 
high table lands of the Cordilleras, also up- 
on the apex of precipices, and from these 
dizzy summits shrinking eyes might gaze 
down two and three thousand feet and ad- 
mire the bewildering beauties ot tropical 



vegetation. It was estimated by leading 
engineers in 1999 that with its line of de- 
fences to the coast the capital of the United 
States of the Americas was impervious to 
the assaults of the world. 

The port of Vera Cruz, only two hundred 
miles east of Washington in a direct line, 
had been permitted to retain its original 
name when Mexico became a part and par- 

.., . . , eel of the American 

Washington s TT . „,, . 

7 Union. This concession 

was made in honor of 
to the Sea. Cortes, the conqueror of 
Mexico, the boldest and most intrepid of all 
warriors of the middle ages, who founded 
the city of Vera Cruz and destroyed his fleet 
of vessels so as to compel his followers to 
wrest from the sway of Montezuma, the 
city of Mexico. It was at Vera Cruz that 
Cortes founded the first Spanish colony on 
the American mainland. In honor and 
memory of the valiant Spanish commander 
and his daring exploits in 1520, it was 
deemed a point of courtesy to retain for 
that city the baptismal name Cortes had 
endowed upon it. 

In 1999 its spacious harbor was taxed to 
its utmost capacity to accommodate the 
world's commerce while en route through 
the Nicaraguan Canal, which was opened 
to navigation in 1915, having cost its Ameri- 
can investors $195,000,000. The proximity 
of Vera Cruz to the canal rendered that 
city an available port, bringing to it a won- 


derful volume of trade and commerce, and 
as Vera Cruz in 1999 was merely the ocean 
outlet of Washington, it will be readily ap- 
preciated that the opening of the Nicara- 
guan Canal and the volume of traffic it di- 
verted in that direction, added materially 
to the importance of that region as the seat 
in 1999 of our national government. The 
completion of the Nicaragua Canal in 191 5 
was a triumph to the American science of 
engineering, yet so tardy in conception and 
execution that it reflected at best only an 
uncertain honor. It should have been con- 
structed and opened to navigation as early 

„ as 1 88s. It was a case 

Importance , , J , , ,, 

of sheer neglect on the 

part of America. As soon 
the Canal. as the p anama bubble 

exploded and Frenchmen discovered that 
they had been hoodwinked by speculators, 
America should have lost no time in con- 
structing the Nicaragua Canal. 

The lesson of the Spanish War has 
taught America the value of an ocean canal 
connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 
With the possession of the Philippines and 
an enormous Oriental trade the operation 
of this canal became a factor of the highest 
importance to America. 

An American fleet of warships in the 
spacious bay of Vera Cruz, only two hun- 
dred miles away from Washington, was en- 
abled in 1999 to steam through the canal 
into the Pacific in only a few hours' time 


and proceed to Hawaii and the Orient in 
short order. This was a great improve- 
ment on the "good old days" of 1899 when 
war vessels and transports, leaving New 
York to go to Manila, had to crawl around 
the tempestuous Horn or travel via. Suez. 

The construction of the interoceanic 
canal added greatly to the importance of 
the new location for our National capital in 
the State of Mexico. Vera Cruz became 
the rendezvous of the world's commerce. 
The central location of Washington in the 
State of Mexico, midway between the two 
great continents, proved an advantageous 
and commanding one and was eminently 
satisfactory to all sections of the great 
American Republic in 1999. 

In considering the vast importance of 
ocean canal navigation to the Americas, it 
is well to ascertain what became of the 
Philippine Islands and China in 1999. 

In that year of our Lord, the world was 

practically governed by three great powers. 

~. „ The first and greatest of 

Three Great 1( *V, 

the trio was the vast 

Powers American Republic, 

in 1999. which in that memorable 

year extended from Alaska to Patagonia. 
Next came Great Britain, whose sway was 
undisputed over the vast continents of 
India, Africa and Australia, along with val- 
uable islands of the seas, like the articles of 
a traditional auction bill, "are too numer- 
ous to mention." The third great Power in 


1999 was Russia. The ruler of all the 
Russias was not only Czar of the European 
and Siberian domains, but he was also 
crowned at the sacred Kremlin as the 
Emperor of China. A glance at the map 
of the world will show that in 1999 Russia 
was in possession of nearly one-fourth of 
the globe's real estate. Not satisfied with 
this, Russian ambition had designs upon 
India, intending to employ China as her 
base of operations. England, however, 
was always alert and ready to frustrate her 

When the nations of Europe in 1898 were 
carving up China, (even Spain and Italy 
joining in the scramble for pieces of China- 
ware,) Russia, her nearest neighbor on the 
north, was careful to secure the biggest 
share of the booty. In 1895 Russia saved 
China from the clutches of Japan, for the 
philanthropic purpose of doing the stealing 
act herself. After appropriating China's 
best provinces on the north, and profiting 
by the completion of the Trans-Siberian 
railroad in the year 1905, Russian influence 
at the court of Pekin, overshadowed all 
others. The Chinese, like all other Orient- 
als, believe only what they see. Russia 
had long been their only neighbor in Siberia 
but when the great Russian railroad was 
completed to Port Arthur, in a very short 
period an army of 450,000 well drilled Rus- 
sian soldiers was bivouacked near the great 
wall of China, within rifle shot of Pekin. 



Once firmly seated on China's neck, Rus- 

T . sian diplomacy moulded 

_ . _ the Middle Kingdom as 

Russian Emperor , ,, ,, , , , 

v clay in the potter s hand. 

of China. j^. s enormous population 

obeyed implicitly the Czar's ukases, and in 
1999 China became a Russian province as 
completely as the Crimea. 

Russia, however, had always entertained 
a warm friendship and cordial regard for the 
United States of America ever since the re- 
bellion of 1860-65 an d her good wishes 
were reciprocated on the part of all Ameri- 
cans. Russian respect for America became 
firmer and more binding as the young 
American Republic attained its enormous 
dimensions. Russia, great herself, realized 
that she had a right to be regarded in the 
same class as our noble country. As an 
evidence of Russian esteem for America, 
during the period from 1920 to 1999, Rus- 
sia granted to Americans special trade priv- 
ileges in China in which other nations were 
not permitted to share. 

As a result of these generous concessions 
to Americans our trade with China in 1999 
attained gigantic proportions and nine- 
tenths of it passed through the Nicaragua 
canal. So important did our Oriental trade 
become in the twentieth century that the 
inter-oceanic canal would have been built 
even though it had been ne :essary to pave 
its channel with bricks of gold and silver. 
American wheat had largely supplanted rice 

ii 4 


as the staple food of China, and in 1999 the 
American export of wheat to China was es- 
timated at a value of $95,000,000. America 
monopolized nearly the entire Chinese trade 
in farming implements, electrical machines, 
cotton goods, dyes and chemicals. 

As to the Philippines, the trade with that 
p , archipelago was entirely 

_ ' . controlled by America. 
and Prosperity After the prQud flag of 

Restored. America had floated one 

century over those islands, the transforma- 
tion scene was wonderful. The Filipinos 
had long learned, after the fall of Aguinaldo, 
that the American Constitution was broad 
and big enough to amply protect and to 
give them that measure of liberty to which 
all nations are entitled. Long before 1920 
they became a docile, patient and laborious 
people and prospered in an amazing de- 
gree. Their exports of hemp, rice and to- 
bacco attained immense proportions and 
the culture of sugar-cane became so profita- 
ble that the Philippines were famed in [999 
as the ' 'Sugar Bowl of the Pacific. " America 
proved a Godsend to those islands. The 
names of Dewey, Otis and Lawton were 
held in high esteem for many centuries after 
Dewey's great victory, which awakened 
America, electrified the world and gave 
birth to the grandest Republic the world 
had ever seen. 

chapter xv. 

serial Navigation Solved. 

Science obtains mastery over the "ethereal blue." 
^Erial navigation perfected in 1925. The name 
of New York city changed to that of Manhattan. 
Washington, in the State of Mexico, becomes 
the centre of all airship or aerodrome lines. The 
fascinations of aerial navigation. From Manhat- 
tan to San Francisco in thirty-six hours, with 
stops at Chicago, Omaha and Denver. Terrible 
mid-air accidents. An air train cloud bound. 

THE Dreamer, thus far, has invited the 
attention of the reader to the political 
conditions extant in 1999. In the preced- 
ing chapters we have contemplated with 
feelings exultant, national pride, the superb 
growth of the United States of the Americas, 
from a comparatively narrow strip of terri- 
tory in 1899 to a magnificent Republic in 
1999, consisting of eighty- five sovereign 
States, extending from Alaska to Patagonia, 
and embracing in one Republic the con- 
tinents of North, Central and South Amer- 
ica. In order to arrive at a lucid com- 
prehension of the political status of the 
great American Republic and its relation- 
ship towards the world in 1899, we have 
reviewed the conditions of other nations of 
that period. We must now pass on to the 
consideration of other social and economic 
conditions which were prevalent in the 
American Republic during the twentieth 


Do not imagine for one moment that in 

the brief compass of a century human nature 

Human Nature had Ranged in any per- 

_ . ceptible or appreciable 

Remains A t +u *o~~ 

degree. In the year 1899 

The Same. the traits of humanity 
were identical with those which were known 
to the world in the days of the Caesars. The 
ebb and flow of human passions, love and 
hatred in the days of the Pharaohs differed in 
nowise from those of 1899. If forty centu- 
ries did not change our human tendencies, 
it will not surprise the reader to learn that 
in 1999 the human family was much the 
same in its tastes and inclinations as in the 
nineteenth century. 

The eighteenth century was an era of oak 
and sails ; the nineteenth century proved to 
be an age of iron, steel and steam, but the 
twentieth century witnessed far greater 
strides of improvement resulting from the 
solution of the serial navigation problem 
and the conquest of electricity. The solu- 
tion of these two great problems alone 
rendered the twentieth century the most 
marvelous age of all since the birth of 

Ever since humanity has trodden upon 
this green, fruitful world of ours ; ever since 
the gaze of man has turned upward and 
penetrated the skies, from the days of Adam 
and perhaps ages before that first settler 
made his appearance on earth, the problem 
of aerial navigation has agitated human 



breast and brain. To solve this difficult 

secret has long been the acme of human 

ambition. In 1899 we knew very little 

more about serial navigation than did Noah 

and his family in the days when Mt. Arrarat 

was first used as a dry-dock. 

Quite certain it is that aerial navigation 

ten thousand years hence will be limited to 

. a moderate elevation 

. . .. „ -. . ^ from the earth. Never 
Limited Field ag long ag tfae worM en _ 

Alter all. dures will human beings 

with breath in their nostrils and blood in 
their veins reach or travel at an altitude of 
over six miles above the earth's surface. We 
know this because death would overtake 
every venturesome traveler who soared into 
those higher regions. A thousand years 
hence the laws of nature will still remain 
immutably the same. 

But the ambition of mankind is to control 
the air at a reasonable distance from the 
earth's surface and to navigate an element 
that is entirely free from all obstructions. 
The aim is to so control an aerial machine 
that it will not drift before every wind, but 
cleave the air and move along its course in 
defiance of the storm. To this must be 
added a guarantee of safety that the public 
is certain to exact before embarking upon 
an aerial voyage, ^rial navigation, no 
doubt, offers vast attractions but while sail- 
ing through the air, with the ease and grace 
of a bird, it might prove very inconvenient 


for passengers to fall out at a height of a 
mile or two and land through the roof of 
some peaceful, happy home or find them- 
selves while unceremoniously falling secure- 
ly hooked in the fork of a tree. Such little 
mishaps in serial navigation had to be guard- 
ed against. 

yErial navigation was perfected about the 
T . year 1925. After repeat- 

ed failures of the Lang- 

ley system from 1896 to 
Airships. ig2Q) the learned Wash- 

ington professor changed his plans. In- 
stead of endeavoring to lift flat-irons with 
wings from the ground, and watching turkey 
buzzards at anchor in the air over the Poto- 
mac river, Langley finally created an aerial 
machine that was operated by electricity 
and moved by a large, swiftly revolving pro- 
peller, somewhat resembling those employ- 
ed in steam navigation, but with blades at 
a more abrupt angle. 

The flying machines which were con- 
structed from 1920 to 1999 on the Langley 
plan, were built of Nickalum, an alloy of 
aluminum, crystalized, within a magnetic 
field. The specific gravity of Nickalum, as 
employed in the manufacture of aerodromes, 
or flying machines, was .512. It was light- 
er than a thin strip of pine wood, malleable 
as gold and impenetrable as steel. JEvo- 
dromes could not have been successfully 
manufactured in 1920 if Nickalum had not 
been employed in their construction. 

.*:rial navigation solved. iig 

This new property was one of the mar- 
velous products of the twentieth century. 
It was employed in nearly everything which 
required strength and elasticity. It was so 
malleable that waterproof garments, over- 
coats and shoes were manufactured of Nick- 
alum as early as the year 191 2. 

Wjth this wonderful and cheaply manu- 
factured metal, aerial navigation became a 

„ , possibility. The old 

/Erodromes f , • •> f •,, , , 

fashion days of silk bal- 

loons drifting helplessly 

Nickalum. Qn a j r curren t s , had long 

passed away. These pre-Adamite curiosi- 
ties belonged to the period of the nineteenth 
century, when man was yet living under 
primitive conditions, though by no means 
in a state of innocence. 

Prodromes constructed of Nickalum 
were largely employed for traveling and 
commercial purposes between 1920 and 
1925, while in 1999 they had reached a high 
stage of perfection. yErodromes weighing 
four hundred pounds only, in 1925, could 
easily carry ten persons and cleave their 
way like an arrow through a high wind. 
Small aerodromes carrying four persons, 
weighed only one hundred pounds. 

If the wind were favorable on their regu- 
lar trips, the high grade express aerodrones 
in 1999, belonging to the 
popular Sky-Scraper line, 
could easily make the trip 
Traveling. from M an h a ttan (former- 
ly New York) to Washington, in the State 


of Mexico, a distance of 1,949 miles in a 
direct air-line, in fifteen hours, making 
brief stops for meals at Columbia, D. C, 
(formerly called Washington) and at New 
Orleans. From the Crescent City it was 
only a short run across the deep, blue gulf, 
to Vera Cruz, then followed a short spurt 
of two hundred miles west of Vera Cruz to 
the national capital, Washington, then 
built upon the site of the ancient Aztec 
City of Mexico. In 1999 this was regarded 
as a neat, breezy little trip. 

The name of New York city (always a 
meaningless and unpopular one), had been 

The Great chan S ed in ig \ 2 to the f 

more appropriate one 01 

Clty of Manhattan. Its popula- 

Hanhattan, t j on j n I99g had j n _ 

creased to 25,000,000 souls. Although the 
largest metropolis of the world, Manhattan 
in 1999 had reached its zenith. 

The consolidation of the republics into 
one vast American Union, from Alaska to 
Patagonia, and the removal of Washington 
as the seat of our national government, 
from the little District of Columbia to a 
more central and appropriate location in 
the State of Mexico, as well as the opening 
of the Nicaragua Canal, were the leading 
factors that contributed to the commercial 
detriment and undoing of Manhattan. The 
star of destiny shone brightly over Mexico 
as the conspicuous centre of the new and 
great American Republic and the volume of 


the world's trade passed through the Nica- 
ragua Canal, diverting millions of freight- 
age that otherwise must have entered the 
port of Manhattan. 

The great air-ship or aerodrome building 
centre in 1999 was the city of Manhattan. 
Upon the Palisades, opposite Grant's tomb 
and about one mile east of the lofty Dewey 
monument, were stationed vast workshops 
for building these beautiful and graceful 
aerodromes. It was ever a fascinating 
sight to the men and women of 1999 to see 
one of these flying machines starting out of 
the shops on its trial trip. The body of 
the aerodrome was resplendent in brilliant 
colors and the new airships always ap- 
peared in the bravery of bunting and silk flags. 

By act of Congress all aerial navigation 
companies were obliged to adopt a certain 
color and number. The big express lines 
running from Manhattan to Rio Janeiro 
and Mexico, each adopted a prismatic color 
along with their official number. The ob- 
ject of this was to enable people to distin- 
guish at sight an approaching aerodrome 
and at once recognize by its color the aerial 
line to which it belonged. 

The U. S. of the A. aerial express ships 

alone were permitted to use white paint on 

IT , _ , the hull of their aero- 

Uncle Sam s , _, , , 

dromes. Thousands of 

avori e them were employed in 

Color. tne g 0vernm ent service 

and conveyed troops to all points in the 



great American Republic. It was, how- 
ever, strictly forbidden, under severe pen- 
alties, to carry any munitions of war or any 
explosives or chemicals upon any serial ship 
whatever. The color of black was em- 
ployed only on funeral occasions. The 
aerodrome, which filled the functions of an 
aerial hearse in 1999, was painted all black, 
hull and sails as well. When the eye could 
discern floating in the air and moving 
swiftly in one direction a long line of black 
aerodromes, it became known that one 
more poor mortal had entered into rest, 
and his remains were speeding through the 
air to their last resting place, namely, the 
nearest crematory ; burials of the old style 
having been prohibited by act of Congress 
in 1947 throughout the United States of 
the Americas. 

It was a really thrilling sight to see the 
large aerodromes in their brilliant colors 
sailing through the air with such swiftness 
and graceful ease, each one carrying over 
its stern the flag of the great Republic with 
its eighty-five stars. Like beautiful phan- 
toms they flitted by, gracefully, noiselessly, 
swiftly cleaving the air without the least 
apparent effort. It was an inspiring sight. 

Bridal couples in 1999 were frequently 

married in an aerodrome as it rested on a 

. . , . city square or in a modest 

Airship .,? n c , ,. 

village green. Standing 

Wedding around the airship, which 

in 1999. was always decorated 

with multi-colored flags and floral designs, 


I2 3 

were invited guests, friends and spectators. 
After the ceremony was over and congratu- 
lations exchanged, the minister, as well as 
the nearest relatives alighted from the aero- 
drome, which immediately commenced to 
ascend amidst the hand-clappings, hurrahs 
and Godspeeds of the gathering. As the 
aerodrome gracefully arose about ten feet 
above terra firma, a few handsful of rice 
were thrown at the happy pair, who retal- 
iated by throwing roses and other flowers at 
their friends below. When the aerodrome 
attained a height of about one hundred feet, 
the navigator steered the aerial ship in the 
direction required and the journey then 

The trip across the continent in an aerial 
ship was always, in pleasant weather, a de- 
lightful experience. A voyage from Man- 
hattan (formerly New York), to San Fran- 
cisco, was a matter of about thirty-six 
hours, with stops at Chicago, Omaha and 
Denver. Sailing through balmy summer 
skies, with a continent at one's feet, was an 
experience never to be forgotten. It was 
exhilarating to glide unchecked, without 
noise or friction, dust or smoke, over lakes, 
valleys, plains and mountains. All sense 
of danger or fear was banished from the 

At night the aerodromes were compelled 
by law to travel at half speed, with two 
searchlights, fore and aft, in constant ope- 
ration. The port lights of all aerodromes 


were red, and the starboard lights were 
green. These precautions were rendered 
necessary in order to avoid mid-air colli- 
sions. Some disasters in 1999 filled the 
m . country with alarm. In 

_ ... . 1940 a terrible mid-air 

Collisions iv • 1 

collision occurred over 

in Mid-air. Rio j ane i ro Two swift 
aerodromes, attached to the Mercury Lim- 
ited express, collided about 2,000 feet over 
that city causing a serious loss of life. Col- 
lision in mid-air was always the nightmare 
and dread of serial navigation. People in 
1999 had not yet become fully reconciled 
to the delightful sensation of dropping out 
of the clouds and getting their clothes torn 
on church steeples and lightning rods. 
When they made a start for heaven they 
were better prepared to make it from earth 
as a starting point, rather than making a 
break for paradise starting from the clouds. 
Accidents, unfortunately, were of frequent 
occurrence. In the columns of the Hourly 
Journal, published in the city of Manhattan, 
(old New York,) under date of Thursday, 
July 17, 1984, we find the following har- 
rowing narrative : 



The Comet Express Collides with the Milky Way 
Prostatic Express. 

Twenty-five Passengers Dashed to Earth. 

Many Saved in the Descent by Using the Air-Life 

Manhattan, N.Y., 2 p. m., July 17, 19S4.— A mid- 
air collision resulting in the death of twenty-five 
persons, and injuries to many others, occurred at 11 
o'olock this morning at a distance of 2,500 feet over 
the city of Binghamton, N. Y. 

The Transcontinental Comet Express, San Fran- 
cisco to the eastern coast, which passes Denver at 10 
p. m., takes its easterly flight and passes over Bing- 
hamton about 11 o'clock on the following day. The 
west bound Milky Way Express is due over Bing- 
hamton at about the same hour. 

A heavy fog arising from the Susquehanna pre- 
vailed at the time and this, added to the fact that a 
propeller-blade of the Comet Express was disabled, 
caused the collision, which collapsed the aerodrome of 
the Milky Way, capsizing twenty-five of the passen- 
gers, many of whom fell in the Court House green, 
being buried in the sod under the terrific velocity of 
the fall. One passenger from Cobleskill, who had 
just started for a trip to the Yellowstone Park, fell 
on the statue of Justice on the dome of the Court 
House. At noon his legs had not yet been extricated. 
The city is plunged in gloom. Among the killed 
were five passengers from Sidney, Unadilla and 
Bainbridge. The details of their death are too 
shocking for recital. The bodies were taken to the 
Binghamton crematory and burned. The ashes 
will be forwarded to-morrow to the relatives. 

On the Comet Express from San Francisco, the 
passengers were more fortunate. The navigator 
calmed the fears of the passengers, many of whom 
were ready to jump overboard and take a short cut 
into Binghamton, frenzied as they were through 
fear. Those who jumped were careful to adjust the 


air life preservers before leaping. The Comet Ex- 
press passengers landed in Binghamton safely. 

Gen. Burgess had both legs so badly broken that 
they will have to be amputated. The surgeons will 
supply new electrical limbs that will prove fully as 
serviceable as the natural ones. 

Terrible accidents like the one above de- 
scribed, taken from the columns of the 
Hourly Journal, under date of July 17, 
1984, were not by any means the only class 
of accidents caused in the twentieth century 
by aerial navigation. Under the influences 
of sighing breezes, an invigorating atmos- 
phere and a mild, genial sun, nothing could 
be more delightful than a mid-air excursion 
on board of an aerodrome. Nothing could 
exceed the pleasant sensations one expe- 
riences while noiselessly gliding over tree- 
tops and church spires. 

In 1999 courtships were no longer con- 
ducted in the locality of the much abused 
garden gate. Love's trysting-place was 
often transferred to the roof of the paternal 
house, where the coy damsel frequently 
awaited with anxious heart for the arrival 
of her lover on an airship. 

But, with all its bright attractions, aerial 
navigation had dangers of its own, obsta- 
cles and difficulties. Here we have an- 
other illustration of the perils of aerial nav- 
igation. We copy the following article 
from the columns of the Sidney Record, 
under date of Jan. 15, 1999, which goes to 
prove that aerodromes, like all mortals here 
below, had troubles of their own : 



The Utica Prostatic Train Delayed by a 
Mid-air Storm. 

Sidney, N. Y., Jan. 15. — There is a cloud-blockade 
on the line of the Oregon & New York Prostatic 
Transit Co., and the air train which left Vancouver 
last evening is stalled at a point 3,000 feet above 
Norwich, with little prospects of getting away for 
several hours. 

Cloud-plows have been sent up from Syracuse, but 
so dense is the raging asrial snow that the plows 
have been unable to reach the stranded train. The 
storm is the most severe one known in years in this 
locality and came on at 8 o'clock last night. It 
raged over the city of Sidney all night, although no 
snow fell. 

The Weather Bureau in Washington, Mexico, 
pronounces it one of the familiar mid-air storms and 
places its lowest point at 3,000 feet above Sidney and 
its highest at 5,000, making a storm stratum of 2,000 
feet. The clouds are banked for a distance of thirty 
miles and are almost impenetrable. 

The conditions are such as to make telepathic mes- 
sages to the conductor of the air train difficult to de- 
liver. A message, however, was received saying 
that all are well on board and the etherize heating 
apparatus working well. 

In the same edition of that paper, on the 

first page, was published another account 

of a serious accident, in which an air-ship 

soared too high and broke away from the 

attraction of the earth's gravity. It read as 

follows : 


The Pontiac Ten Days Overdue at Vera Cruz. 

Washington. Mexico, Jan. 14. 1999. — The Trans- 
oceanic air-freighter Pontiac has been overdue at 


Vera Cruz for ten days. It is feared the ship has got 
snarled in the upper ether currents. As she has not 
been spoken by other air-ships it is probable she has 
drifted away from the influence of the earth's gravi- 
tation, and drawn into the orbit of some neighboring 
planet. It may land in Mars. 

/Erial navigation in 1999 was not merely 

confined to large express, passenger and 

_, . . freight ships, but also 

Everybody • . r , , 

, came into general use by 

111 the the public. The .Ero- 

Air * cycle of the twentieth 

century was an serial bicycle that skimmed 
through the air with admirable ease, being 
operated like the old-fashioned bicycles 
suffering mortals in 1899 used to jump over 
hills and rough roads, straining muscle and 
nerve to the utmost tension, and frightening 
horses with their "bicycle face." Two or 
three of the bicycles of 1899 were kept as 
curiosities in a glass case in 1999 in the war 
department at Washington, Mexico. They 
were regarded as instruments of voluntary 
torture, relics of a species of refined bar- 
barism. The invention of the ./Erocycle 
sealed the doom of bicycles. 

chapter xvi. 
The Age of Electricity. 

^irial navigation shunned by many people in 1909. 
The great Age of Electricity. The Passing of 
the Horse. The noble beast loses its fetters and 
becomes a Household Pet. Steam engines a 
relic of the past. No more smoke in railroad 
travel. Tunnels lighted bright as day and filled 
with pure air. Single-rail electric roads all the 

IT must not, however, be imagined that 
people in 1999 passed away their whole 
lives traveling in the air. Millions could 
not be induced under any consideration, to 
plant a foot in any serial ship. They 
hugged old Mother Earth with a true devo- 
tion worthy of a better cause. Many peo- 
ple in the year 1899 were to be found who 
entertained strong antipathies against trav- 
eling on water, but in 1999 the opponents 

„,. ,-. .. of aerial navigation out- 
Old Earth , , ,, 6 , 
_ . _ , numbered them one nun- 
Good Enough j 1 . t^ .*■ 
s dred to one. For this 

for I hem. anc j o^gj- mG re import- 
ant reasons, the genius of the twentieth 
century applied itself assiduously to the 
perfecting of electrical and compressed air 
machines of every conceivable character. 

The twentieth century saw the coup-de- 
gnice, or death blow, given to sails for pro- 
pelling ships, horses used for traction pur- 
poses and steam in mechanical engineering. 



Electricity, drawn directly from coal, as 
well as the air, was procurable in inex- 
haustible quantities. Electricity long be- 
fore 1999 was stored with the utmost ease 
and economy, and shipped all over the 
world for lighting, heating and motive 
power. The partnership existing between 
the old-fashion steam engine and electric 
dynamos was dissolved forever in 1920. 
Electricity conducted the business alone 
and in its own name after steam and its 
clumsy accessories withdrew from the firm. 
One of the first to feel the effects of the 

change was that greatly 

Good-bye admired and beloved crea- 

flr. Horse. ture, the horse. In 1999 

plenty of horses were yet 
to be found in the haunts of civilization. 
They were generally kept as pets, gentle, 
graceful and docile creatures, reminders of 
past centuries in which their progenitors 
had so laboriously served the ends of man. 
Occasionally in 1999 some old-fashioned 
swell, who had been acquainted with horses 
and their ways in 1930, would occasionally 
harness up a pair to a curious looking vehi- 
cle with shafts and take a short drive, but 
in 1999 such antiquities were regarded with 
the same curiosity Noah might have exper- 
ienced could he have seen an aerodrome cir- 
cling around the ark. Out in the country, 
in remote districts and mountain regions, 
horses were occasionally seen doing farm 
work, but the sight was an unusual one, in- 



variably attracting much attention. It was 
estimated in 1999 that in about one hundred 
more years the horse in cities and country 
towns would become as rare as the buffalo. 

In 1930 when the horse had already 
ceased to be a beast of burden, epicures 
openly accepted its flesh as a highly 
esteemed dish. Indeed it became quite the 
fad for fast swells to dine on trotter steak. 
The dray and carriage horses were the first 
ones to disappear, but the racers held on 
pretty well. In 1942 the turf and paddock 
were still popular, though rapidly declining. 

The competitors that drove the horse 
from its field of labor were the electric and 
compressed air horseless vehicles As early 
as 1 899 the horseless carriage was rapidly 
striding into popularity. In 1920 they 
were common sights everywhere. In 1950 
they had crowded the horse to the wall and 
in 1999 horseless vehicles for business or 
pleasure were exclusively employed every- 

Horses in 1999 were no longer beasts of 

burden in the great American Republic. 

r, . . They had been emanci- 

Emancipated . ■, , 1 . • -^ , 

pated by electricity and 

. , compressed air. In re- 

Electricity. mote sect i ons f the 

American Republic, like the pampas of 
the State of Brazil and the mountain 
regions of the State of Peru, horses were 
frequently to be seen, but seldom employed 
as beasts of burden. It took many cen- 


lookini; forward. 

turies to wipe the equine race from the 
face of the globe. The history and achieve- 
ments of the noble brute had been for man)' 
centuries linked to that of man. In 1999 the 
Arab still loved his faithful charger, guard- 
ing it as the apple of his eye. The noble 
animal still shared his tent. In his estima- 
tion a wife or two were of little worth com- 
pared with the swift, graceful animal that 
so often carried him from danger and left 
his pursuers in the rear. It would have 
been sad indeed for the world, so early as 
1999 to lose an animal endowed by nature 
with so much intelligence, an animal that 
again and again had decided a thousand 
fields of battle and had braved all dangers 
by land or sea. But from the thraldom of 
labor, the horse in 1999 had been emanci- 
pated and this tribute was one worthy of 
his peerless fame. 

Even the reindeer of the Polar regions 
felt the touch of twentieth century genius. 
The Laplander had no further use for 
the dog-power of his ancestors. His sleds 
glided along the fields of ice, propelled by 
electricity, of which inexhaustible sup- 
plies were drawn from the aurora bore- 

In 1999 automobiles required only three 
days to traverse the distance from Montreal 
in the American State of East Canada to 
Washington, our national capital in the 
State of Mexico. The roads throughout the 
Americas had reached a high grade of per- 



fection and travel on electric automobiles 
_ became a pleasure even 

in all the Southern States 
Roads of the Amer i can Union, 

Everywhere. such as Venezuela, Bo- 
livia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentine. 
Uncle Sam's farm in 1999 was a big one and 
was covered with good roads. Horses and 
steam engines were altogether too slow for 
the twentieth century. 

The exclusion of steam from all railroads 
in 1999 proved a great boon to travel. 
Railroad smoke was a drawback to steam 
roads, while sparks, cinders and live coal 
were a constant danger to property. When 
a happy bride and groom took their de- 
parture on a train for their honeymoon in 
1899 their friends pelted them with rice, 
while the old fashion steam engine attached 
to the train rounded the compliment by 
pelting the newly wedded pair with cinders 
and soot. Dense volumes of black smoke 
n I* ht poured into the railway 

coaches, filling everycrev- 
ice and corner, render- 

Steam Travel. ing the human face un- 
recognizable. Travelers in these old- 
fashioned cars, clad in the bravery of fash- 
ion, in their silks and fine raiment, would 
journey only a short distance when they 
would become almost unrecognizable from 
the torrents of black soft-coal smoke that 
pierced their cuticle and darkened their 
lives. It was hard to determine at the end 



of a brief journey of a thousand miles 
whether the white man who bought a 
through ticket in New York was a Cau- 
casian or an Ethiopian when he landed in 
Chicago, so dense was the smoke through 
which he had traveled. 

The delightful atmosphere of a tunnel 
formed one of the great attractions of steam 
travel in the good old days of 1899. Our 
unhappy American travelers while journey- 
ing on these steam roads would suddenly be 
rushed into a black hole, the damp and foul 
air of which was enough to kill a salaman- 
der, filled with smoke and asphyxiating 
gases. The marvel is that one-half of the 
people ever pulled through a tunnel alive. 

In 1 999 these monstrosities of steam rail- 

Th road travel were entirely 

. _ „ done away with. Not 
Single Rail , - 

* a steam engine was any- 

is King. where to be found. The 

single rail electric railroad was monarch of 
all it surveyed, and there were none to dis- 
pute its sway. It ruled the universe. The 
new-born electrical power drew its forces 
from the air. Electricity was greater than 
light itself. Its rule was felt by day as well 
as by night. 

In 1999 when an electric train dashed 
through a tunnel, its arch was aglow with 
electric fire, rendering the passage light as 
at noon time in a blazing sun. A touch of 
the button turned on every light in the 
coaches. The air of the tunnel, instead of 



being black with smoke and noxious vapors, 
was pure as the open air. Travel was ren- 
dered delightful in these swift-speeding 
trains on the single-rail electric railroads, 
which easily maintained a speed of two 
miles per minute. In point of speed they 
were easily outwinged by the aerodromes, 
but for all that, grass did not have much 
time to grow under the gearing of any elec- 
tric car in 1999. 

These single-track electric railroads cov- 
ered the Americas like a network of cob- 
webs. They were much safer than the two- 
track system of railroads peculiar to the old 
period of 1899, when steam engines, going 
around curves at two miles per minute, 
were liable to lose their heads and lay down 
in the ditch to try and figure out where 
they were at. The single rail upon which 
the electric car was balanced in 1999, 
was built about three feet above the 
track. The cars were so constructed that 
j. .... the wheels ran along their 

whole length, the sides of 
. the car being built to a 

Minute. point a bout two feet be- 

low the rail. The trolley wire overhead 
gave more steadiness to the car. It could 
not upset. 

Through lines from Chicago to Wash- 
ington, in the State of Mexico, attained 
high speed, as well as the electric lines that 
crossed the isthmus from the State of 
Mexico to Rio Janeiro. It frequently hap- 



pened that strawberries gathered at the base 
of Mt. Orizaba, in Mexico, were delivered 
in Chicago in season for supper the 
same day. Fish of highly esteemed flavor 
that were swimming in the bay of Vera Cruz 
at break of day were frequently placed on ice 
and reached Manhattan in time for dinner at 
seven p. m. the same day. 

chapter xvii. 
Electrical Navigation. 

Strange and novel uses to which electricity was ap- 
plied in 1999. Hydrophobia banished from the 
earth. The relations of Creditor and Debtor 
greatly improved. Electrical ocean, river and 
lake navigation. The ocean ablaze with electric 
lights. Ships navigated by wireless telegraphy. 

IT has always been the conceit of every age 
that its own era is the most progressive 
and the most enlightened of all. In 1799 
any man who could have stood on the deck 
of Nelson's flagship "Victory" and in- 
formed that gallant sailor that in 1899 war- 
ships would navigate without sails ; that 
powder would be used that made no smoke ; 
that heavy rifles would hurl a ton shell 
fourteen miles, would have been dropped 
overboard as a monumental liar. 

The age in which we live is always a con- 
ceited one ; always ready to scoff at inno- 

The Bump vations " t Ever y a S e TT had 
a bump or its own. How 

these precious bumps are 
e Age. smoothed down one by 

by one, is really interesting. The stage 
coach was king in its day. As men gazed 
upon the lumbering, six miles per hour 
coach, the bump of the period made them 
believe it was the swiftest and most lux- 
urious mode of travel the world would ever 
see. Steam came and reduced the stage 


coach bump. When men saw steam loco- 
motives drawing fast trains and covering 
the country with villainous smoke, they 
really believed it was the swiftest mode of 
travel the world ever would employ. Elec- 
tricity then appeared and reduced the steam 

In 1999 electricity became a mighty mon- 
arch and an obedient slave. It ruled and 
. it obeyed. This lively 

king of the twentieth 
lve ? century was a hustler. 

Customer. Sixteen distinct trips 

around the globe it could make in just one 
second's time. Electric railroads and flying 
machines could not reasonably hope to 
make sixteen separate trips around the 
globe in one second's time. The age of 
1999 was a very rapid one, but its joints 
were too rheumatic to attempt any such 
gait. A traveler hustling around the world 
at the rate of sixteen times per second 
would hardly have time to visit and shake 
hands with friends. 

In the twentieth century electricity, 

the servant-king of the world, was har- 

.„ „ nessed to everything con- 

All Done , , „ xi_- 

ceivable. Everything was 

y done by merely pressing 

Electricity. a button . Houses built 

in that period had no stairs. Every pri- 
vate house had its elevator. Press a but- 
ton and up it went. Houses built in that 
period had no chimneys. All heating and 



every bit of the cooking was done by elec- 
tricity. If you wanted heat, press a but- 
ton ; more heat wanted, press two. Locks 
and keys also became relics of a past age. 
No one in 1 999 ever locked his house. 
Every house was provided with an electri- 
cal outfit. Those who desired to leave the 
house for a few hours attached the electric 
gongs and alarm bells. When connection 
was made no one could leave or enter the 
house without raising a pandemonium and 
sending an alarm to the central police sta- 

The uses of electricity in 1999 were car- 
ried to even absurd lengths. Man's most 
faithful, but, alas, uncertain friend, the 
dog, was in evidence throughout the twen- 
tieth century. He wagged his tail vigor- 
ously as ever in token of kindnesses re- 
ceived. He was as ready as ever to sacri- 
fice his life for that of his master, as well 
as to plant his teeth into the calf of his leg. 
The Hindoo charmer is never really safe 
until he has extracted the fangs of the rep- 

And so it was with the twentieth century 
dog. Nothing can be more violent than 
death by hydrophobia. The bite of the 
dog may prove more terrible than that of 
the cobra. This scourge was effectually 
removed. In 1999 dogs over one year old 
had their teeth removed by electricity. 
Their mouths were then fitted with a false 
set. During dog-days, while Sirius was in 


the ascendant, the false teeth were removed 
and all canines were kept on a vegetable 
diet. Hydrophobia became one of the lost 

Another peculiar method in which elec- 
tricity was utilized in 1999 tended to rob 
dentistry of some of its 

electrical terrors. There was one 

Dentistry. feature of dentistry in 
1899 that often tested 
the best nerves, and that was the peculiar 
odor common to all dental chambers of hor- 
ror. This peculiar odor settles like a cloud 
upon the stomach and seldom appeals in 
vain to one's nerves for sympathy. For 
this reason an electrical machine was in- 
vented in 1999 which enabled the patient 
to remain at home while an offending tooth 
was tendering its resignation. The dentist, 
during the operation, remained in his den, 
enjoying a monopoly of its odors. If a 
tooth ached all one had to do was to call up 
a dentist, on the telephone, and ask to be 
placed on the line. The victim, in the se- 
clusion of his back parlor, adjusted the 
electrical forceps and signalled to the den- 
tist, five blocks away, to touch it off, then 
the festivities commenced. These private 
tooth extracting seances became very pop- 
ular. No profane eyes were there to wit- 
ness the agony of the victim, as in a public 
dental office. If he shouted loud enough 
to make a hole in the sky or tried to kick 
the plaster off the ceiling, no one was any 


the wiser for it. But in a public dental of- 
fice (especially with ladies in the adjoining 
roomj, while the victim is being harpooned, 
his eloquent groans must be stifled and no 
attempt must be made by the victim to kick 
at the chandeliers. The new system of 
home electrical tooth extracting proved very 
popular. It was one of the things that had 
come to stay. 

In 1999, through the medium of electrici- 
ty, the relations existing between creditors 
and debtors became closer and more bind- 
Sure Cure in S- In l8 99- for some 
I reason or other never 

n a tt * IU Hy explained, a debtor 

ijeau rSCtits. 1111 1- 

wbo had a long standing 

account, was liable to dodge into some nook, 
corner or side street, if he caught a glimpse 
of his creditor coming down the road. The 
relations existing between creditor and 
debtor in the nineteenth century were not 
as cordial as they should be. If the debt 
were of long standing there lacked a certain 
warmth in their greeting which was perhaps 
difficult to account for. 

In 1930 creditors and debtors adjusted 
themselves in better harmony, at least they 
kept in closer electrical touch with one 
another. If the sum due was $50 or over 
and of long standing, the law allowed the 
creditor to connect his debtor with an elec- 
trical battery. The object of this wise law 
was to keep the creditor in constant touch 
with his debtor. If the debt was over three 



months due, the creditor was allowed to oc- 
casionally "touch up" his debtor without 
having to hunt him up and dun him. The 
creditor always had him ' ' on the string " so 
to speak. It was further specified by law 
that creditors must employ only as man}' 
volts as there were dollars due on account 
in shocking a debtor. These electrical 
shocks were merely reminders, intended to 
refresh the memory of the debtor. A man 
owing $200 was liable to receive two hun- 
dred volts until the debt was satisfied. 

This plan for the collection of bad debts 
worked very successfully. In 1999 no 
w . . debtor could tell when 

his creditor might touch 
him up. The shock re- 
Charm, minding him of his old 
debt might come during the night and dis- 
turb his pleasant dreams. Perhaps while 
seated at the family table, or perhaps even 
while engaged in family worship, an electric 
shock might come that would raise him 
three feet off the floor. Such little occur- 
rences were rather embarrassing, especially 
if the debtor was talking at the time to 
sorrre lady friend. A man owing $500 was 
in danger of his life. His creditor was lia- 
ble to dun him by giving him a shock of five 
hundred volts. Such sensations, certainly, 
are not as pleasant as watching a yacht 
race, with your boat an easy winner. 

A curious illustration of the operation of 
this new condition between creditors and 



bad debtors, by which the former had an 
electrical control of the latter, came to light 
in a parish church on the banks of the St. 
Lawrence. It appears that the village 
school teacher, who was also choir-master, 
was busy with a Saturday evening rehearsal. 
The members of the choir were in their 
places, while the professor stood near the 
communion-rail, facing the choir, with his 
back turned towards the empty pews. He 
was speaking, when suddenly his red hair 
stood on end, his whiskers straightened out 
at right angles, while his eyes looked big as 
door knobs. He then gave a leap in the 
air, turned a somersault backwards and 
cleared ten pews before landing again on 
his feet. It appears that he owed his land- 
lord an old board bill of $120 and the latter 
had just given him an electrical dun. The 
choir was astounded at the professor's per- 
formance. The latter excused himself and 
merely said it was a slight attack of grip. 

In 1942 any one who used the word 

' ' steamship " was immediately rated a back 

number. A few of them, it is true, still 

fouled the ocean with their villainous smoke, 

but in 1999 the electrical ship ploughed the 

briny waters. It was a grand sight to see 

a magnificent ship nine hundred feet in 

length propelled through the waters at a 

p. . . - rate of thirty-five knots 

per hour by an invisible 

power, a mighty giant 

Navigation. encased in the interior of 

the ship, a power that labored silently yet 


swiftly, with no perceptible vibration to the 
vessel and without emitting volumes of 
black smoke. These swiftly moving elec- 
trical ships were strange and striking in 
their appearance. Those constructed in 
1975 by the Cramps had no masts, and 
they, of course, had no more use for fun- 
nels than a hen has for teeth. To the peo- 
ple of the old school of 1899, the ocean 
electrical ship looked strange indeed. The 
spectacle of a large steamship of 28,000 tons 
burden cleaving the ocean waves at the rate 
of forty knots per hour, with no masts and 
no smokestacks, looked strangely to men in 
1 975 who had been accustomed in their 
youth to old fashioned steamships like the 
City of New York, Campagnia, Kaiser Wil- 
helm der Gros, Fiirst Bismarck, Teutonic 
and others of that class. In 1975 the hull 
of the electrical ship retained practically 
the same old line?. An electrical ship, like 
the Great Republic, built in the year last 
named, plying between Manhattan and 
Liverpool, was a trifle over nine hundred 
feet long, with only eight-two feet breadth 
of beam. From stem to stern was built a 
swell body roof which covered the entire 
deck of the vessel. This covering was sup- 
ported by ornamental iron columns from 
the bulwarks and usually stood about 
twenty feet above the deck. The only ob- 
ject that arose above the deck-roof was the 
captain's bridge, in which was stationed the 
steersman, who steered the leviathan by 


merely pressing electrical buttons on a 
small disc in front of him. With the masts 
and funnels removed from an electrical 
ocean ship, much valuable room was thus 
secured, adding greatly to the comfort of 
the passengers. 

Electricity was pressed into every con- 
ceivable service. That wonderful element 

, . ... ,, was man's best and most 

Lighting Up , ... , , ~, 

. faithful servant. There 


was no duty in the twen- 

Atlantic. tieth century too menial 

for it to do. It transformed our ocean, 
lake and river craft into a blaze of light by 
night. Collisions after dark were unknown 
to navigation in 1975. At a distance of ten 
miles out at sea an electrical vessel looked 
like a solid mass of moving flame. Elec- 
tricity drawn directly from the air and ex- 
tracted from coal, costs practically nothing. 
The chief item of expenditure was to main- 
tain the electrical machines in repair. In 
1899 sailing ships moved along at a snail 
gait and during night time a small green 
and red lamp on the port and starboard 
sides of the ship was all that enabled other 
vessels to note their presence. It was al- 
ways the marvel of that age that a hundred 
collisions did not take place every night on 
the Atlantic. But in 1999 not a sail or 
steamship was anywhere to be seen, on 
ocean, lake or river. Electricity was 
cheaper, swifter and more reliable. 

In 1899 so backward was the age that 


small boats, called row-boats, were still pro- 
pelled with oars. In that year those primi- 
tive people still employed the old methods 
of propelling a boat that were in vogue in 
the days of the Phoenicians and Vikings. 
They still rowed a boat in the manner of the 
Greek galley slaves. In 1930 seamen had 
no more use for oars than a sperm whale has 
for paddle-wheels. Everything that could 
float, from a wash-tub to a man-of-war, 
was propelled by electricity. Even toy 
boats, sold for $5, were propelled by elec- 
tricity. The winds still raged in 1999. 
From zephyr to cyclone that element 
ruled over the surface of the globe, 
but man had little use for it. Even the 
staid Hollander harnessed the wind no 
more. His mills were run by electricity, 
while the same agency was continually at 
work pumping out his dykes. 

Through the agency of electricity naviga- 
tion in the twentieth century was rendered 
much safer. The ocean by night was dotted 
with electric buoys, which tossed and bowed 
with every wave. On these buoys signal- 
lights were placed, and passing vessels could 
read the latitude and longitude in which 
they were in at any time of the day. The 
figures were plainly marked on each buoy. 
By night the Atlantic ocean between Sandy 
Hook and Daunt's Rock was dotted with 
bright electric arc lights of 8,000 c. p. The 
eye never wearied gazing upon the pictur- 
esque beauty of the scene. 


The effect of these brilliant lights on the 

broad bosom of the ocean, especially during 

. „ a storm, was grand be- 

vond the power ot pen 

of ^o describe A distant 

Beauty. wave could be clearly 

seen approaching one of these electric, mid- 
ocean buoy?. On it sweeps, a tremendous 
current that no human power could stem. 
The rugged blue wall of the great wave glis- 
tens in the dazzling electric light as its huge 
side and foaming crest reaches the electric 
buoy. It seems as though the light and 
buoy must be swept to destruction and 
buried from sight. As the great wave sweeps 
over the light, all becomes dark for a few 
seconds, but when the mighty billow has 
swept on, the electric arc again blazes forth 
in the trough of the sea bidding defiance to 
Neptune's frowns. These mighty mid-ocean 
scenes, viewed. from the deck of an electric 
ocean greyhound, were thrilling in the ex- 

Along the great chain of coast-line of the 
United States of the Americas, from the 
State of Maine to the States of Venezuela, 
Brazil and Patagonia, also on the Pacific 
slope from the States of Chile, Peru and 
Colombia to the States of West Canada 
and Alaska, every rock or promontory dan- 
gerous to navigation, was ablaze with elec- 
tric beacons. Electricity was common as 
air. Oceans and continents were made 
more habitable to man. It became in 1999 
the world's sun by night. 


The perfect and absolute control of elec- 
tricity by the scientists of the twentieth 
century benefited both aerial and ocean nav- 
igation, in furnishing the motive power. 
But these were benefited in another and 
hardly less remarkable manner by the per- 
fected Marconi system of wireless telegraphy, 
which in the nineteenth century was com- 
paratively unknown and in its early experi- 
mental stage. In serial and ocean navigation 
wireless telegraphy proved an invaluable aid. 
The bright, young Italian inventor became 
a benefactor of the human race. 

chapter xviii. 
Wireless Telegraphy. 

The great advantages of wireless telegraphy in nav- 
igation. Ships are enabled to communicate 
with shore during voyages. Messages received 
and sent at any time en route. Collisions at sea 
reported at once. Belated steamers cause no 

IN the old-fashioned days of sails and 
steam, when a vessel left port and passed 
out of sight, she instantly became a whole 
world in herself. Communication nad 
been severed with the outer world. The 
condition of a sailing vessel during a calm 
was a picture of helplessness. Steamships 
were more self-reliant — they at least con- 
trolled their own course. But both classes 
of ships, whether propelled by sail or steam, 
once out of sight of land, were temporarily 
shut out from the busy world. 

During these enforced absences upon an 
ocean voyage, great events frequently hap- 
pened of which passengers, officers and 
crews were necessarily ignorant of. At the 

-. . ~ , termination of a long or 
Shut Out of , ., 2 

short voyage, the first 

e news could only be ob- 

World. tained from the pilot- 

boat which met the approaching vessel far 
out at sea. War might be on the eve of 
declaration as the vessel left port, battles 
might be fought, the enemy might be van- 
quished and even peace declared and a 



knowledge of all these events would only 
reach the tardy mariner upon the arrival of 
the vessel at her port of destination. 

Such a condition of affairs, often the cause 
of the deepest anxieties on the part of ocean 
travelers, might answer well enough for the 
days of the Crusaders, when kings of Great 
Britain went to Palestine to battle for the 
Cross, and never again heard from home in 
three or four years' time. When Napoleon, 
that meteor of the nineteenth century, left 
the shores of la belle France for the rocky 
desolation of St. Helena, it was over a year 
before he received any news from Paris. 
The same conditions ruled in 1899. Steam 
had rendered ocean voyages shorter and 
more punctual. But the main difficulty 
still existed. Passengers on our ocean- 
liners during a voyage knew as little of oc- 
currences at home as those who traveled in 
the days of the Vikings and Crusaders. In 
this respect (as in many others), the world 
in 1899 was no better off than in the days 
when the Roman legions landed on the 
shores of Britain. The nineteenth century 
and the centuries before Christ were upon 
equal footing in this respect. 

Many splendidly equipped steamships, 
with colors flying and bands playing left 
port in the old days of sails and steam, 
with multitudes waving their adieux and 
heartily wishing them God-speed and were 
never again heard from. No communica- 
tion was possible in those days between land 



and vessels at sea. Sometimes they were 

, , .. doomed in the cold em- 

Into the , , . 

brace 01 an iceberg ; an 
Jaws 1 it- • 

occasional collision sent 

of Death. hundreds of souls to their 

final account ; fire, always dreaded on the 
ocean, caused many to suffer the horrors of 
thirst and starvation ; the ocean claimed its 
victims in many dreadful forms and no 
tidings ever reached home of the fate of 
loved ones, because communication between 
ship and shore in the "good old days" of 
1899, was impossible. This supreme diffi- 
culty had not yet been overcome in 1899, 
and the defect was universally regarded as 
being a most deplorable one. The only 
communication ever maintained between 
vessels in mid-ocean and the main shore in 
the nineteenth century was done by cable- 
ships, while actually engaged in laying an 
ocean cable. The Great Eastern was the 
first steamship to lay claim to this distinc- 
tion, when in 1867, her officers fished up 
and brought to the surface the broken At- 
lantic cable and the great news was flashed 
from ship to shore. 

Vessels in those days of the nineteenth 

century only too often left port never again 

. v to be seen by mortal man. 

_ , . Loved ones plunged into 

Backward . , , A 

a watery grave, locked 

£ e " in each other's embrace, 

and none survived to tell the fearful tale. 

Communication with shore was unknown 

'5 2 


in the vaunted civilization of the nineteenth 
century. The fate of the Naronic, of the 
White Star line, looms up in evidence. Not 
a whisper was again heard of her after she 
left port. The City of Glascow in 1854 
sank in Neptune's pastures. Four hundred 
and eighty souls went down in that brave 
ship. No hint, however slight, was ever 
heard of her. The Ocean Monarch, the 
Pacific of the Collins line, and the ill-fated 
City of Boston, all suffered fates that none 
but the day of judgment can reveal. 

This confession of weakness, this serious 
drawback of the nineteenth century, which 
added to the terrors of those ' ' who go down 
into the great deep," was fortunately not 
shared by the advanced sciences and arts 
of the twentieth century. Wireless teleg- 
raphy contributed almost as much to the 
comfort of ocean and aerial navigation as 
electricity. Telegraph poles that rendered 
hideous some of our most beautiful avenues 
and the antiquated ocean cables were en- 
tirely relegated into oblivion. The former 
went into the scrap heap, while the latter 
found their way into Davy Jones' locker. 

Long before 1999 wireless telegraphy was 

employed on all vessels on ocean, river and 

lake. Instant communication was at all 

times maintained between ship and shore. 

n War vessels at foreign 

** stations made their daily 

a New reports in 1 999 to the 

Era. Navy Department in the 

State of Mexico. All other navies of the 


r 53 

world enjoyed the same facilities. Rela- 
tives telegraphed to their families and friends 
from vessels in mid-ocean. It was quite 
common to receive a brief message from an 
Atlantic liner two thousand miles east of 
Sandy Hook, as follows : 

On board Electrical Ship Manhattan.) 
Latitude 50 N., long. 30 W. / 
Dear Henry :— Got over being seasick. Baby and 
nurse doing nicely. Had strawberries and cream 
for dinner. Dodged an iceberg and struck a whale 
yesterday. Love to all. Will wireless from Paris. 


Overdue vessels in 1999 gave no anxiety 
in that era of progress. If a shaft broke 
the home office was at once notified that 
the vessel would be several days behind her 
schedule time in arriving at her destination. 
If caught in a fog or obliged to move at half 
speed, the information was immediately 
lodged on shore. In fact it even became 
possible to navigate vessels from the shore. 

In 1982 the strange experiment was made 
oi navigating a large ocean electric ship 

Sailed his from Man hattan (old N. 

£j. Y. ), to Queenstown. 

p The name of the vessel 

from Land. wag the Q[ty q{ S[dnQy 

After the pilot had dropped off at the Hook, 
Captain Sherman, of the Electric Belt Line 
of vessels, remained in his private office in 
the forty-third story of Anti-Trust building 
on 59th street, Manhattan, and issued his 
commands by wireless telegraph to the first 
officer of the City of Sidney. Reports 



reached the captain every six hours, giving 
the exact latitude and longitude and the 
ship's course was directed from the captain's 
private office on 59th street in the city of 
Manhattan. In other words it was the city 
of Manhattan that kept the City of Sidney 
on the move, so to speak. The ship's 
course, conduct of the crew, the health of 
the passengers, the reports of passing elec- 
trical vessels, the velocity of wind and other 
details of navigation, were communicated 
to Captain Sherman, whose orders were 
given and obeyed as readily as though issued 
from the bridge or deck of the City of Sid- 
ney. When that vessel arrived off Queens- 
town to land the U. S. of the A. mails, 
Capt. Sherman in 59th street ordered half 
speed and finally stopped the electric en- 
gines. Of course, while navigating his im- 
mense vessel across the ocean and remain- 
ing seated in his office at home, Captain 
Sherman could not assume his place in the 
saloon at the head of the table. Wireless 
telegraphy could not, with all its ingenuity, 
satisfy one's appetite at the sumptuous din- 
ners served on boafd the City of Sidney. 
But this demonstrated to the world 
in 1982 that with wireless telegraphy com- 
manders could remain in their office on 
shore and sail their ships to foreign ports in 
perfect safety. This was done in 1982 just 
as easily as the old style train despatcher 
controled far away trains in 1899 while 
seated in his own office. 

\ V [ R F I . E S S 1 ' E I . K i J K A P H V . 


The Marconi system of wireless tele- 
graphy, when perfected in 1920, employed 
the Hertzian magnetic waves, which are 
identical with the waves of light. When- 
ever an electric spark is made to leap from 
one electrode to another, one of these waves 
is created. The Marconi instruments for 
sending and receiving are tuned to each 
other and are then invulnerable to the at- 
tack of waves of different lengths. 

These rays of electricity are reflected and 

directed in a given direction like rays of 

light . An electric circuit 

A marvelous with a key, gives the 
Invention basis of the Marconi sys- 

tem. This circuit runs 
through a spark coil with an oscillator to 
produce continuous electric sparking so long 
as the circuit is kept closed by the key — and 
from this the sparking wires run out of 
doors to the pole from which the messages 
are sent. 

One end of the wire is placed in the earth 
and the other is elevated in the air. The 
height to which it is carried determines the 
distance to which the messages may be sent. 
The operator presses his key as in ordinary 
telegraphing, making his alphabet in dots 
and dashes. As the waves shoot out and 
reach the distant station, the filings in the 
tube cohere and the current passing through 
them draws up the armature of the relay 
magnet. This closes the circuit of the re- 
cording instrument. It is broken constantly 


looking forward. 

by the tapper and instantly re-established 
by receiving waves. 

The towers employed in 1920 for the 
transmission of wireless messages were very- 
high. The manifest advantages of the sys- 
tem were apparent and long before 1930 
wireless telegraphy came into general use. 
The new system proved the death-knell of 
telegraph poles, as well as ocean cables. 
Old telegraph stock faded in value like the 
morning mist. The supreme importance 
of communicating with vessels while at sea 
alone guaranteed the success of the wireless 

Wireless telegraphy proved to be one of 

the crowning scientific achievements of the 

twentieth century, but the ambition of sci- 

,-t- AA . -xi. entists in 1969 knew no 

Chatting with , , J 7 \. . 

bounds. In that year 

e they were busy sending 

Boys in Mars. messages to Mars, util- 
izing starbeams for that purpose. For thirty 
long years they repeated the same messages 
or signals to Mars every night. In 1999 the 
canalers up in that bright Yankee planet 
had not yet responded but hope was still 
entertained that some sign of recognition 
might yet be secured from the Martians. 

Telescopes in 1999 had been vastly im- 
proved. The network of canals in Mars 
became far more distinct to the human eye. 
The moon, our nearest neighbor, looked as 
though only one mile away. Neptune, the 
giant of the heavens, grew on more intimate 



terms with our mother Earth, but on Mars 
was centered the greatest attention. Fer- 
vent were the hopes that Martians would 
acknowledge the ceaseless signals sent from 

The growth of the electrical machine in- 
dustry in 1999 was enormous. The United 
States of the Americas led the world in their 
manufacture. The dawn of this vast indus- 
try was already manifest, even in 1899. 
The capital invested in electrical industries 
in that year was as follows : 

„ , ^ . ., Invested Capital. 

928 electric railways, aggregating 14,- 

s 5o miles '. f3S 3 , 000,000 

2,S38 electric light central stations,.... 335,486,51s 

25,000 private electric lighting plants, 87,500,000 
Power transmission (750,000 motors in 

use ) •. 150, 000,000 

Electrical apparatus in mining 125,000 000 

Telegraph, telephone, &c 6oo,ooo',ooo 

Total $2,180,986,518 

In 1999 nearly a third of the entire capital 
of the vast American Republic was invested 
in electrical interests of some form or other. 
The export trade of American machines be- 
came stupendous. The world demanded 
only the American make ; no substitutes 
would answer. 

American pluck and brains proved the 
lever that Archimedes, the Greek mathema- 
tician, so long sighed for. American brains 
moved the world. 

chapter xix. 
Cremation Becomes a Law. 

No more grave robberies in the twentieth centurj'. 
The old style of burial becomes a back number. 
Popular errors about Cremation removed. Un- 
dertakers at a discount. Costly funerals dis- 
couraged. Funeral etiquette in 1999. No per- 
son buried alive in the twentieth century. Sacred 
memories of the dead still jealously treasured. 
" Rented graves " and other burial abominations 
of the nineteenth century are forever banished. 

HE great innovation of the twentieth 


century which long rankled within the 
human breast, but finally uprooted and con- 
quered prejudice, was cremation. The 

old traditions and forms 

No riore G f Christian burial were 

" Earth to Earth." difficult to eradicate, but 

reason and a general 
sense of public safety finally broke down the 
barriers and traditions of ages. Cremation 
for many years shocked public sensibilities. 
The terrors of the hidden grave, nameless 
and horrible, were eliminated by the new 
and only safe process of disposing of the 
dead. In the contention which prevailed 
during the first half of the twentieth cen- 
tury, many were reluctant to accept crema- 
tion as the true mode of burial. By de- 
grees, however, public opinion settled down 
and adjusting itself to the new conditions, 
accepted the quicker and safer methods of 



Cremation in 1999 became the only legal- 
ized form of burial. Every cemetery was 
provided with a crema- 
Cremation tory long before [950. 

Became a Law. Electricity was employed 
in reducing the body to 
ashes. Grave robberies that so often dis- 
graced the nineteenth century, became im- 
possible. A rich man was at least sure of 
a safe burial of his ashes after cremation, 
while the poor man's body, which formerly 
was thrust into a Potter's field, was safe at 
last from medical students and professional 
body-snatchers, who often robbed graves to 
Rich and Poor secure a skeleton. Mil- 
lionaires in the twentieth 
on -ir 

~ Ir , , . century enioyed after 

Equal Footing. , , , J J J , , 

death the same degree of 

safety vouchsafed to the poor man. Their 
dust was on equal footing. 

The old graves were left undisturbed in 
1999. Graves in that year, in the manner 
of their occupants, gradually passed into 
decay. In the centre of every cemetery 
was constructed a fine mausoleum, a pan- 
theon in which the ashes of the dead were 
carefully deposited in vaults or family recep- 
tacles. Cremation having become in 1999 
the only mode of burial authorized by law, 
The State pays these mausoleums were 
I built at the expense of 

... D . . the town. Each vault 

All Burials. , , , ., 

was owned by a family 

in perpetuity. Those who were too poor to 


purchase a vault had their ashes placed in 
a common burial plot in the ground. 

These large mausoleums were built of 
white marble in a style of architecture ap- 
propriate to the solemnity of their purpose. 
The interior was well-lighted and ventilated 
and on the door of each vault was carved 
the family name. All mausoleums were 
built about on the same plan. From the 
centre of the structure arose a high dome 
of beautifully chiseled white marble, while 
light poured from the top into the circular 
floor of the structure. The vaults used as 
receptacles for the ashes were stationed 
about in a large circle, in several tiers, one 
above another. The ashes of the cremated 
body were deposited in a small metallic 
box, 9x18 inches, and four inches deep. 
On the cover was engraved the name, age, 
date of death and cremation of the deceased. 
Each family vault was capable of holding 
thirty metallic cases, or burials. 

It was universally conceded that crema- 
tion was the only safe and proper mode of 

It Looked disposing of the dead 

. , In 1999 people wondered how the ^^ form of 

to I hem. burial had so long been 

practiced by civilized nations. When in 
1999 cremation became the only legal 
form of burial, they looked with feelings of 
horror upon the ancient form of interment. 
How people could lay away their loved ones 
in the cold "round to remain for vears the 


companion of the worm, could not be un- 
derstood in the days of cremation. All ar- 
guments brought against burials in the 
ground were unanswerable. It was an 
offense against the laws of humanity, and 
the practice was maintained even as late as 
1965, but public opinion became firm 
against it. The revolt against burials 
spread raidly, once inaugurated. 

In 1965 a family that consented to the 
burial of their dead was regarded not only 
Guarding- as a back number but 

the Bodies of ™ th feelin g s of aversion. 
Rich Hen question arose in the 

minds of many if they 
really could love the memory of 'their de- 
parted one and place the body where it was 
liable to be stolen or desecrated ; where it 
became the food of vermin. People in 
1899 often had to even place strong guards 
over the tombs of rich relatives for fear that 
vandals might steal the body and retain it 
for ransom. Long after death bodies of 
men had been drawn from their tomb and 
hanged by a mob. When in 1899 Lord 
Kitchner, the Sidar of the British forces in 
Egypt, subdued and captured Khartoum, 
Nineteenth lle P ermi tted his men to 

Century violate the tomb of the 

Practices. ***" t Theb ^yofthe 

Prophet was torn from 
its resting place and its head was decapi- 
tated. And this, note well, was done by 
British soldiers in 1899, to avenge the cruel 
death of Gen. Gordon. 


In 1999 desecrations, robberies and vio- 
lations of graves became impossible. The 
world was no longer shocked by such atroci- 
ties. Hyenas, both biped and quadruped, 
were thrown out of business. Cremation, 
the purest and swiftest mode of reducing 
the body to dust and ashes, was universally 
declared to be immeasurably better than 
the ancient mode of burial. The dead were 
not permitted to pollute the ground and to 
infuse germs of diseases, deadly microbes, 
into living springs of water. It matters 

- ... ,-, little, in 1999, whether 

Everything For ,, ' , ^^ 

..., ... the cemetery were situ- 

and Nothing . , c u - u 

s ate on top of a hill, in a 

Against It. valley or in the midst of 
a crowded city. The ashes they contained 
could pollute neither water, earth nor air. 
A mausoleum or cemetery in 1999 was often 
built in the mobt crowded or most fashion- 
able section of a city. Cremation was 
acknowledged to be a clean, wholesome 
method of burying the dead. Boys in 1999 
were not under the painful necessity while 
walking past a cemetery at night to whistle 
to keep up their courage. 

In 1899 the popular idea about cremation 
was erroneous and was largely the cause of 
prejudice against this method of disposing 
of the dead. A vast number of people be- 
lieved in that year that bodies which were 
cremated were literally roasted or reduced 
to ashes over a fierce fire. When people, 
however, began to learn the truth of the 


matter, that cremated bodies were placed 
in the retort of a crematory and were re- 
duced to ashes by an exceedingly high tem- 
perature and not touched in any manner by 
fire, then prejudice let down the bars and 
cremations soon became common. 

As a result of cremation and the law of 
1999 which compelled its adoption as the 
only legal method of burial, undertakers 

Undertakers were de P ri u ved °J lai p 
revenues they often de- 
rived from the sale of 

Long Faces. caskets . Caskets were 

no longer in demand because, as a wag in 
1985 observed: "There is nobody to bury. " 
A seven foot casket of the 1899 pattern, 
however gorgeous, would have been absurd- 
ly too large and meaningless to enshrine 
the ashes of a departed relative. Such con- 
trivances were good enough in the backward 
age of the nineteenth century. Burials in 
1899 were made under ground, while in 
1999 they were all made above ground. In 
1899, immediately after death in a family 
one of the first duties was to purchase a 
casket and arrange with an undertaker for 
the funeral. In their unhappy frame of 
mind, with hearts bowed in grief, under- 
takers often made terms their own way with 
mourners. Few mourners are in a state of 
mind to drive a bargain in such moments, 
and they too often yield to the blandish- 
ments of the suave casket-broker accepting 
any terms he may offer. Cremation did away 


with this, and unscrupulous undertakers 
had to come off their perch. 

Hearses were not abolished in the days 
of cremation. The style of the hearse 
entirely changed. In the place of the pom- 
pous affair of 1899, bedecked in its towering 
plumes, rich in silver appointments, massive 

T , rr .. ,. structures covered with 
The Twentieth , , , , . . 

plate glass, driven by an 

en u y awe-inspiring individual 

arse. perched on a high seat, 

the hearse of 1999 was a far less preten- 
tious affair. It weighed no more than a 
light, racing sulky. It had four wheels. 
In the centre of the vehicle, which, of course, 
was propelled by electricity, was constructed 
a small platform about three feet square, 
the sides of which were elaborately trimmed 
in gold and silver ornaments. The platform 
was covered by an open canopy supported 
by four elaborate silver pillars. The me- 
tallic case containing the ashes of the de- 
ceased seldom exceeded 9x18 inches, 4 
inches deep, and weighed about four pounds. 
These metallic cases were of exquisite de- 
signs, usually in highly burnished silver or 
gold. Those which contained the ashes of 
the wealthier classes were often covered 
with precious stones and brilliant gems, 
presenting a most artistic and attractive 
appearance. These burial cases looked like 
jewel-boxes of an elaborate pattern. In 
looking at them death was robbed of its 
terrors. A beautiful jewel-case, 9x18 inches, 


containing the ashes of some loved one did 
not strike one's imagination with the hor- 
ror of a long burial casket with its inanimate 

There was everything about cremation to 
appeal to loftier ideals. The light, porta- 
ble character of the little cremation cases 
became more popular than the heavy casket. 
The heart-rending accidents that too often 
occurred under the old system of burials, 
became impossible in the brighter and bet- 
ter days of cremation. In 1899 it some- 
times happened that in lowering a body into 
the grave the bottom of the casket gave 
way. The rest can better be imagined than 
described. It sometimes happened that 
Sample while a funeral procession 

Horrors of was on its w ^ to the 

„ cemetery, the hearse 

team got frightened. In 
the thrilling runaway that followed the cas- 
ket fell out of the hearse and breaking open 
the corpse rolled out on the ground. The 
horror-stricken relatives and friends would 
remember the sad scene through life, men- 
tioning it only in whispers. 

These horrors of the old-style, so-called 
Christian burials, were rendered impossible 
in the cremation regime. Not that alone, 
but cremation removed from earth the most 
horrible experience that can be endured by 
mortal man and that is premature burial. 
The practice of burying bodies is a relic of 
barbarism. Its horrors and possibilities are 


without limit. No civilized community 
should tolerate it. Custom and tradition 
are the forces that maintain it. It does not 
possess a single point in its favor, while, on 
the other hand, there are scores of sound 
arguments against it. 

No person who ever spent a minute in the 

fierce temperature of a crematory ever 

Can't lived to tell the tale. 

Burv them ^ e ancient method of 

AI . burial is not so certain — 

Alive. . 

many cases have come to 

light where people, supposed to be dead, 
revived after interment. Imagine the 
horror of the situation. Can any human 
experience be more dreadful than this one ? 
Many cases have come to light in the nine- 
teenth centurv proving beyond a shadow of 
doubt that unfortunate men and women had 
been buried alive. In graves opened many 
weeks after burial the scratched face, torn 
hair and imprint of terror upon the features 
told only too plainly what had happened 
and of the final anguish of the unfortunate 
one. Such horrors were not possible in the 
cremation process. If there is anything 
the world appreciates it's a " sure thing" — 
and that salient feature of cremation did 
not escape its attention. 

On the day following the death of a per- 
son, after the remains had been viewed for 
the last time by relatives and friends, the 
body was taken by night to the crematory 
where it was immediately reduced to ashes. 


These were carefully deposited in a small 

metallic burial case and returned to the 

No Hurry for mortuary residence The 

. date 01 the funeral was 

agreed upon and notices 
Funeral. were sent out to the 

public. Sometimes it was deemed de- 
sirable to hold the funeral one or two 
months after death. In cremation funerals 
everything passed off in the most leisurely 
manner possible, accompanied with the 
highest effects of art. A funeral could be 
held a week, a month or a year after death. 
There was ample time to make arrange- 
ments, or to postpone a funeral on account 
of the weather. On the day of interment 
when the ashes were to be deposited in the 
family vault in the mausoleum, at the ap- 
pointed hour, friends and relatives gathered 
at the mortuary residence. The small me- 
tallic casket containing the ashes of the de- 
ceased was usually placed in the centre of 
the room, resting upon a light bamboo 
stand, covered with black velvet. The 
stand was usually surrounded with choice 
flowers and floral designs. The tiniest cas- 
kets used in the old burial days were double 
in size of the beautiful silver and gold cases 
sometimes holding the ashes of a person 
who might have weighed, during life, over 
three hundred pounds. The absence of the 
large casket used in old burial days and the 
substitution in its place of a small jewel- 
size case containing the ashes was an agree- 


able innovation. Otherwise, all funeral 
services in 1999 were substantially the same 
as in 1899. Although the surroundings 
were far more pleasant, the grief of the 
stricken ones was none the less profound. 
When funerals in 1999 were held in a 
church, the exersises were about the same 
as in the days of the old burial system. 
Instead of six bearers, only one. became 

There was a marked contrast between 
the funeral processions of 1899 and those 

Funeral of I999> The great ' 

„ . . cumbersome hearse had 

Procession in ,• A , • ,1 

disappeared, and in the 

*999 ij ne { carriages that 

followed the small, light electric hearse, no 
horses were to be seen. All mourners' car- 
riages were propelled by electricity. The 
automobile containing the minister, led the 
procession, then followed the hearse and 
carriages of the mourners. In 1999, when 
a funeral passed by, people on the streets 
at the time were always careful to remove 
their hats as a mark of respect to the ashes 
of the deceased. This was a concession to 
common decency almost wholly unknown 
in the days of burials. People living in 
1899 should not be too severely criticised in 
their lack of respect for the dead in the 
matter of uncovering as a funeral proces- 
sion passed by. The entire system was a 
relic of barbarism and people were hardly 
to blame for denying this mark of respect 
to such an objectionable mode of burial. 



It was at first thought that cremation 
would destroy the sacred memories and ob- 

Memorial Day ^ vances of Memorial or 

Decoration Day. In a 

few years, however, it 

I9 °°* was discovered that these 

fears were unfounded. People in 1999 were 

loyal to the sacred memory of departed 

ones, and on Memorial days the interior of 

the mausoleums and doors of the vaults were 

garlanded with flowers, presenting a most 

beautiful appearance. The old graves of 

the nineteenth and preceding centuries were 

still cared for by loving hands. 

These were decorated as in the good old 
days of 1899 and were not in anywise neg- 
lected. Many families in the twentieth 
century took up the remains of their ances- 
tors and caused them to be cremated in or- 
der that their ashes might rest in the same 
vault. It was conceded that the ashes 
could never perish in a vault and another 
supreme advantage in favor of the crema- 
tion system arose from the fact that they 
required no care. 

The abominations of the old fashioned 
burials were apparently without limit. 
Under that barbaric system of the 19th 
century, it might truly be said that after 
death a man had not where to lay his head. 

Ejected for ° r ne 7°^ think ^ 

Non-Payment after d , ea ' h . a P erSOn f had 
severed his connection 
of Rent. with the Hving world 

Such was not the case. It often happened 


that men were taken out of their graves for 
non-payment of rent. That is, the lease 
or care of the ground not having been sat- 
isfied or paid, the ground or cemetery lot 
reverts to the Association, who dislodge the 
body of the tenant and offer the cemetery 
lot for sale to other parties. In the 19th 
century, especially in European cities, it 
was a common practice to lease a grave for 
five years, at the expiration of which period 
the grave was opened and the skeletons 
deposited in underground catacombs or left 
to the tender mercies of medical students. 
The barbarity of such practices, sanctioned 
by the civilization of the 19th century, need 
not be dwelt upon. Cremation removed 
the stigma of such unholiness from civilized 
nations. The ashes of the dead required 
no material space and were easily disposed 
of. No grave rentals or purchases were 
required in their case. 

Last but not the least of the advantages 
of cremation was the death blow it gave to 

., ., .. the ghost industry. Su- 

Spoils the °. . J , , 

perstition tottered when 

os in 1999 graveyards had 

Business. been abo i ished by j aw> 

as well as custom. The stately, white mar- 
ble mausoleum which held the ashes of de- 
parted ones did not possess the gruesome 
appearance of the old fashioned cemeteries 
of 1899, with mounds and graves scattered 
in every direction, some of them in a con- 
dition of shameful neglect. There was 



something about a graveyard which was 
naturally repellent to the living. The ones 
who scoffed the loudest at ghosts, and were 
really very brave at noon time, were never 
favorably impressed with the idea of spend- 
ing a few hours alone at night in a cemetery. 
When graveyards were abolished and bodies 
were promptly reduced to ashes after death, 
superstition began to weaken. Many people 
who would have been terrified at the sug- 
gestion of keeping a dead body in a house 
any unusual length of time, did not hesitate 
in many instances, to keep the ashes of sev- 
eral cremated members of the family for 
years, in their parlor. Cremation removed 
the sting of death, robbing it of its terrors. 
It was a blessing to the world and was 
thereafter ever sustained by enlightened 

chapter xx. 
Newspapers in 1999. 

They are still progressive and enterprising as ever 
and constitute one of the bulwarks of American 
liberties. The Pneumatic tube postal service 
and swift delivery of mails. Four daily deliv- 
eries of mail between Manhattan and San Fran- 
cisco. A Submarine Railway Accident. A Ma- 
rine Spider Crippled. Returns to Babyhood. 
Buying up Titles. 

IT is the proud boast of America that as 
a nation it possesses a larger per centage 
of people who can read and write than any- 
other nation on the habitable globe. Our 
excellent system of free schools and the ava- 
lanche of newspapers that find their way 
into every home, at a mere nominal cost, 
have vouchsafed a general diffusion of 
knowledge throughout our great Republic, 
filling every branch of art, industry, and 
every profession with men and women of 
brains and intelligence. 

The force and power of the newspapers 
in America in 1899, the perfect liberty of 

.. , . the press, were regarded 

Safeguards . ,,■ r , ° 

in that year as guarantees 

of public safety, mighty 

Liberty. levers in forming public 

opinion. In 1999 the newspapers of the 
period had lost none of the prestige and in- 
fluence they enjoyed in the old days of sail 
boats and steam engines. They were still 


handled in many instances with consummate 
skill and wielded a power that built, as well 
as shattered, governments. 

In current topics and in the chronicles of 
events, there existed a marked difference 
between the newspapers of 1899 and those 
of 1999. New elements and conditions had 
come into play which were unknown in the 
period of the nineteenth century, and as a 
natural result the newspaper of the twen- 
tieth century contained some curious and 
interesting articles. 

In 1899 the daily that got out a morning 
and evening edition was regarded as an up 
to date affair in every sense of the term, 
but in 1999 the newspaper world moved 
much faster. In a large daily office four 
complete editions were issued every day or 
once every six hours. The news poured 
into these daily offices with marvelous speed. 
Wireless telegraphy and asrial navigation 
annihilated space. On the other hand, 
newspaper and letter mails in 1999 were 
conveyed through much swifter channels. 

The postal pneumatic tube system con- 
structed by the American government was 
v p . . a marvel of the twentieth 
1, .. century. There extend- 

ai . ed from Washington, 

Deliveries. (Mexico), a network of 

underground and overground pneumatic 
tubes reaching throughout the Americas, 
penetrating all the Northern, Central and 
Southern States, from the State of Alaska 



to the State of Argentine. Mail deliveries 
made through these pneumatic tubes were 
exceedingly rapid. No electrical transit or 
any method of aerial navigation could equal 
the rapid delivery of the pneumatic tubes. 
The mail pouches were forced through these 
large tubes and delivered at all the princi- 
pal cities in a very short space of time. 
Mails from Manhattan to Washington, the 
seat of the national government in the State 
of Mexico, traversed the distance in less 
than two hours. From Mexico to the State 
of Argentine, as well as the Southwestern 
American States of Peru and Chile, the mail 
transit in 1999 required but a few hours 
in delivery, — in 1899 it was a question of 
weeks. Even aerial navigation in 1999 
was found too slow to convey and deliver 
the mails. The pneumatic tube system was 
even swifter, and with such facilities at 
hand it is not surprising that people in San 
Francisco received four daily editions of the 
Manhattan journals, although the distance 
between Sandy Hook and the Golden Gate 
is a matter of 3,600 miles. 

The subjoined clippings from the Electri- 
cal Times, of Thursday, August 20, 1999, 

T , c ... . . will give the reader a 
The Editorial b , . , , . , 

_, . general idea of the news- 

Blades . i 1 ,. 

papers, style and matter 

of 1999. f that period. It will 

be observed that the noble race of beings 

known as editors and newspaper reporters 

was by no means extinct in 1999. The 


subtle art of telling wonderful stories and 
the science of making American newspapers 
the foremost in the world, had been inher- 
ited by the children of 1999 from their 
lively ancestors of 1 899. 

In 1899 Yankee genius and enterprise 
was conspicuous in the newspaper line. It 
led the world. The latest and the best al- 
ways found their way into American print. 


H<>\v the Glimmerglass Failed to Cross the At- 
lantic in Two Days 

Liverpool, Eng., Aug. 20, 1999. — The new electri- 
cal ship Glimmerglass arrived here at 12:30, having 
made the ocean trip from Manhattan (formerlv 
known as New York) in two days, eight hours and 
thirty-seven minutes, within twenty minutes of the 
swiftest time ever made by a wholly equipped elec- 
trical vessel. But for a storm of twenty hours out, 
the record would have undoubtedly been beaten. 
Owing to a break in the wind-counteracting engines, 
the storm in the locality of the ship could not be 
stilled and for over an hour the passage was very 
rough. The counteractors were finally put in motion 
and the Glimmerglass regained several lost hours, 
but the odds were too greatly against it. An attempt 
will be made to break the return record. 


Wreck of a Train in the English Channel Tube- 

London, England, Aug. 20, 1999. — Passengers on 
the Dover & Calais Sub-Marine Electric railway, 
train No. 44, arrived at Dover in a state of decided 
fright this morning. The sub-marine system runs 


directly under the English channel, the trains on the 
line of this company running through huge cylinders. 
At a point midway in the channel one of the inverted 
rails, owing probably to defective mechanism, had 
snapped in twain and the train, which was going at 
a high rate of speed, flew from the track. 

Two carriages were overturned and the engineer 
was killed by being thrown violently from the cab. 
The passengers were forced to remain in the tube 
for an hour. Several in the overturned carriages 
were injured but none seriously. 


Four of Her Legs Broken En Route to South 

Charleston, S. C, Aug. 20, 1999. — The marine 
spider, Nautilus, arrived here in bad shape from 
Brazil to-day, one of her fore legs having been broken. 
The Nautilus is one of the fleet of the South Ameri- 
can Importing and Exporting Company, and was 
built at Charleston two years ago. The boats in this 
fleet were built on the principle of an insect, it being 
an established fact that a body can be carried over 
water much more rapidly than through it. The spi- 
ders were fashioned after the manner of a centipede, 
the feet being bell shaped and connected with a su- 
perstructural deck by ankle-jointed pipes, through 
which, when necessary, a pressure of air could be 
forced down upon the enclosed surface of the water. 
The locomotion is like that of a pacing horse and 
great speed can be maintained. The marine spider 
had for its inventive source a treatise on its possi- 
bilities written by Tohn Jacob Astor as early as 1894. 


They Cause Much Distress in the Loyal British 

London, Aug. 20, 1899. — Americomania is so far 
prevalent in this city that the deepest resentment is 


aroused in every loyal British heart. Since the wide- 
spread abolishment of titles and the very general 
purchase of historic castles and country seats by 
wealthy Americans, the foreign element has been a 
serious menace to English society, which has been 
for fifty years controled by the descendants of United 
States heiresses who married titles. 

London swells are adopting the early western cus- 
tom of wearing their trousers in their boots as a dis- 
tinctive touch to their morning costumes and the 
sombrero is also being sold by leading hatters. Young 
debutantes are cultivating the unaffected manners 
of American girls, and many ambitious mothers are 
going so far as to send their daughters to Manhattan, 
Denver and San Francisco boarding schools. 


Alarm Lest the Americans Shall Gain a Foot- 
hold There. 

Galveston, Texas Dec. 2t. — The meteoric mes- 
sage which has been expected from the planet Mars 
for several days, and which the astonomers. located 
on Pikes Peak, Colorado, left Mars over two years 
ago, dropped in the bay off here to-day, striking the 
water with a sizzling sound. It was still quite hot 
when picked up and the metallic covering had to be 
broken up with an oceanic pile driver. The message 
was written on asbestos paper in non-fading ink, and 
a crude translation of it conveys the information 
that the high ruler of the combined continents of 
Mars died of gastronomic fright two years ago last 
November while watching an American Thanksgiv- 
ing day celebration. He predicted before his death, 
that if the Americans ever got a foothold on this 
planet, they would ruin the incomparable digestion 
of eyery resident by the introduction of cranberry 
sauce, mince pie and plum pudding. 


The Star Chaser is Ten Days Overdue at Toktu. 

Tokio, Japan, Aug. 20, 1999. — Transoceanic air 
ship Star Chaser has been overdue at this port for 


ten days. It is feared that the ship has been caught 
in an upper ether current and carried many miles 
above her course. 

As she has not dropped to earth anywhere, there is 
a strong probability that she has risen beyond the 
influence of the earth's gravitation and been drawn 
into the orbit of some neighboring planet. Anxious 
friends of the passengers are besieging this office for 
tidings of the Star Chaser. 


Tragic Transition of an Aged Spinster to a 
Drooling Infant. 

Miss Imogene Elyria of No. 678,431,222 Four Hun- 
dred and Sixty-first street, took an overdose of Flor- 
ida Age Regenerator this morning, and was instantly 
reduced to a squalling infant. Miss Elyria was a 
maiden lady 45 years of age, and a few days ago she 
sent to Florida for a bottle of the regenerator to take 
for her complexion and to reduce her age a few 

She did not, unfortunately, follow the proper di- 
rections, and one of her sisters, entering her bed- 
room this morning, found her reduced to the age of 
1 year and crying for her breakfast. She will be 
taken to the Oregon age-producing springs, where, it 
is hoped, the unfortunate lady may at least recover 
enough of her lost years to make her a blushing de- 

A tragic feature of the affair is the fact that Miss 
Elyria was engaged to a wealthy widower, who is 
heart-broken at the terrible contretemps. 


Extravagant Sums Paid to the Old English 

London, Aug. 20, 1999. — The English government 
to-day purchased the title of Lord Algernon Percv 
Augustus Dunraven for a mere song, the considera- 
tion being £10,000. This removes one of the oldest 
titles existing in modern times and only about twenty 


remain in England. Since the law passed by Par- 
liament providing for the purchase of old titles held 
by the descendants of the members of the peerage, 
as it existed under a monarchy, over £800,000,000 
have been spent in buying up these remnants of a 
semi-civilized form of government. The highest price 
ever paid was that for the abolishment of the name 
borne by the duke of Argyle, ,£1,000,000. 

Sir Tom Lipton, who will be henceforth known by 
the republican name of Thomas Timothy Tubbs, has 
been reduced to poverty by reckless expenditures en- 
tailed] in his enthusiasm for air-yachting, and it is 
said that he has spent £40,000 in trying to increase 
the speed of his defective atmospheric racer, 
the Shamrock. 


Colonel Washburn of Kentucky Prefers Death 
to Non-Alcoholic Liquor. 

Frankfort, Ky., Aug. 20, 1999. — "Foh one I shall 
not vote to destroy my Gawd given ancestral privi- 
lege to consume liquor, sah. They may call us un- 
civilized barbarians, if they will, sah ; they may call 
down upon our degenerate heads the unbottled wrath 
of the universe, but, as for me, sah, give me good 
old Kentucky bourbon, or give me death ! " 

With these words Colonel Henry Clay Washburn 
concluded his speech in the upper house of the leg- 
islature to-day on the bill to suppress the alcoholic 
liquor traffic in Kentucky. For years the annual 
legislative battle has centered on this issue. 

Gradually state after state has abolished, what 
many considered an evil, and in most localities the 
effects of alcoholic drinks were destroyed by the 
chemical discovery which, when applied, made them 
non-intoxicating. But the Blue Grass state has re- 
mained firm as a rock, although in modern art and 
science it has no superior in advancement in the 
union. The bill under consideration to-day was de- 
feated by an overwhelming vote. 

The following advertisements, taken from 
Sidney Record, October 15, 1999, will in- 
terest our readers : 



INDESTRUCTIBLE FOOD-Our odorless rubber oysters 
are all the rage ; cheap and durable ; especially adapted to 
use in restaurants and at church fairs ; will always wear ; we 
refer by permission to the Ladies' Aid Society ot the Church 
of the United Brotherhood, which purchased sixteen gallons 
of our oysters five years ago, and is using them still ; will re- 
main in a stew five hours without corroding. Perennial Bi- 
valve Company, 149th street. 

LOST— From the upper deck of a suburban airship, a lady's 
picture hat ; the hat was caught in a whirlwind and is be- 
lieved to have landed somewhere near Fort Collins ; its re- 
turn in good condition will insure a generous financial ac- 
knowledgment to the finder. 


DON'T GO TO CHURCH— Have one of our kinetophones 
placed in your house ; connects with all leading churches ; 
you can shut off sermon whenever you wish. LONG DIS- 
TANCE RELIGIOUS COMPANY; factories in Denver and 

GENTLEMEN-Buy our Breath Deodorizer; fumes of 
Bourbon, old rye and lager removed instantaneously : 
splendid thing for those contemplating attending evening 
parties or the theater. 

LADIES, READ THIS— Cinderella Shoes will make a No. 
6 foot that requires an E last look like a narrow No. 1 ; com- 
fortable and durable ; each pair has a latent hypnotizing at- 
tachment that drceives even the most enviou* and spiteful 
women who catch a glimpse of the shoes when worn. 

absolutely guarantee that our Electric Equalizer will dissipate 
any domestic storm and insure harmony in families ; so sim- 
ple that a child can operate one; so delic ite in adjustment 
that the first angry word sets free a soothing magnetic cur- 
rent ; for sale by every drug store and dry goods shop. Man- 
ufactured by the Anti-Divorce Mercantile Company. 

It is not to be supposed that farming, the 
greatest of all American industries, had not 

Farm Hands ™de a ny P r °g«ss dur- 
ing the twentieth cen- 

a tury. Probably in no 

Discount. Qther field of labor was 

electricity employed to better advantage. 


Farm hands in the nineteenth century were 
as unreliable in some cases as balky horses. 
The farm owner's distress and nightmare in 
1899 was the farm laborer. But in 1999 
the ' ' farm hand " was practically done 
away with. Horses and farm laborers were 
no longer employed in the cultivation of the 
land. Electricity was on tap in every part 
of the farm. Even the milking and stable 
cleaning was done by mechanical means. 
In 1899 a farmer who hired all his work done 
and lived along comfortably on the proceeds 

The Dignity of 11 ^ property, was 
. called by the absurd title 

, . of a "gentleman farm- 

Labor. Q _ ,. t?, r , 

er. the farmer who 
rolls up his sleeves and toils is none the less 
a gentleman. A gentleman is not always 
the one who spends a life of leisure and 
lives on the toil of others. The hard work- 
ing farmer in many cases proves to be 
the real gentleman ; he dignifies labor and 
commands the respect of his neighbors. 

In 1999 all agriculturalists were "gentle- 
man farmers." Their great slaves were the 
electrical machines. They never groaned, 
complained or knocked off work in the busy 
season to go on an excursion. The electri- 
cal farming implements could work all day 
without sitting under a shade tree, with a 
jug of cider and a corn-cob pipe. They 
labored patiently and faithfully and per- 
formed their tasks with great accuracy. 

chapter xxi. 
Twentieth Century Inventions. 

The Wonderful Automatic Valet, — a faithful servant 
and silent friend. A Balloon-car Accident, — 
twelve thrown out and killed. Excursion to the 
Moon. Woman Worship in France. Ready Di- 
gested Dinners. Highly nutritious pellets for noon 
lunch. Ice cream pills become popular ; also 
delicious fruit pellets. 

IF some wide-awake American genius in 
1999 had invented an electrical breathing 
machine his invention would have been 
well patronized. By the use of electrical 
appliances, manual labor had been reduced 
to a minimum. The electric automobiles, 
aerodromes, aerocycles, electric bicycles and 
hundreds of mechanical appliances used 
as labor saving machinery, really invited 
laziness. If a breathing apparatus had been 
invented in 1999 its sales would have been 

In support of this statement we reproduce, 
herewith, an article taken from the Scien- 
tific American, under date of May 28, 1999, 
as follows : 




Some years ago the need of a machine which 
would dress persons on arising from bed, make their 
toilet and prepare them for breakfast, or a stroll on 
the street, was generally felt. 


Several attempts were made to supply this want, 
but nothing was perfected until M. Pan talon an- 
nounced the completion of his automatic valet. This 
machine was shaped very much like an ordinary 
man, except that it was built on an absolutely square 
plan. There were two upholstered legs, on which 
reposed a heavy, square chest, and above the chest 
was the head, also square and resembling a block. 

Mechanism of the Valet. 

The machinery was directly in the center of the 
body-chest, controlling the movement of the legs and 
arms, the latter being round, four jointed and twenty- 
seven inches long. Instead of a face, the head bore a 
dial, on which the hour was depicted. The whole valet 
was wound up by a small crank in the back. If a 
man wished to be aroused, at, let it be said, 8 o'clock 
in the morning, he adjusted the alarm button on a 
small dial on the fate of the large clock at that hour. 

Promptly at 8 o'clock the alarm in the head of the 
valet exploded, waking the sleeper. The first move- 
ment on the part of the valet after the alarm had 
sounded was to move quickly but noiselessly in the 
direction of the bath-room, where, by automatic 
stoppers, the water is set running, stopping instantly 
on the tub being filled. 

An Automatic Bath. 

After turning on the water the valet moved back 
to the bed, threw the covers aside, and with one of 
its automatic arms gently lifted the man from his 
resting place, conveyed him to the bath room, laid 
his night robes aside and immersed him. The bath 
completed, the valet drew from its chest-cupboard 
two flesh-towels, with which it briskly rubbed the 
bather, and then again lifting him up carried him back 
into the bedroom, where it proceeded to dress him in 
clothes which had been laid in a certain place the 
night before. 

From its automatic chest the valet took comb, 
brush and whisk broom, and in less time than would 
be ordinarily consumed in telling about it, the toilet 
was completed. A feature of the invention, as per- 
fected by Pantalon, was the arrangement on the 
time dial by which the speed of the valet could be 
regulated, and a man could be dressed quickly or 
slowly, as he preferred. For busy men, M. Pantalon 


has invented valets that do the business in less than 
three minutes, including bath. The chief value of 
these valets is that, not being human, they cannot 
gossip, and every man may become a hero to his 
valet, provided the valet is automatic. 

In 1999 the mania for saving time and 

obtaining rapid results simply knew no 

bounds. It is a wonder that the inventive 

genius of the Yankees was not applied to 

the perfection of some machine that would 

compel the universe to rotate more rapidly 

upon its axis. So great was the rush of 

human affairs that people found little time 

VT . ... to eat. The feverish, 

Nutritious , , , ,, 

^ .. mad rush or the age was 

Dp I jptc ° 

intense. No better proof 
for Lunch. of this can be found than 

in the success of a peculiar enterprise, which 
in 1899 would have proved a flat failure. 
In the good old days of 1899 people at least 
took time to eat, but in 1999 a big company 
was capitalized to manufacture and sell 
Ready Digested Dinners. In order to save 
time, people often dined on a pill, — a small 
pellet which contained highly nutritious 
food. They had little inclination to stretch 
their legs under a table for an hour at a 
time while masticating an eight-course din- 

The busy man in 1999 took a soup-pill 
or a concentrated meat-pill for his noon day 
lunch. He dispatched these while working 
at his desk. His fair typewriter enjoyed 
her office lunch in the same manner. Ice- 
cream pills were very popular, — all flavors, 




also the fruit pellets. These the blonde 
and brunette typewriters of 1999 preferred 
to the bouillon or consomme - pellets. 

chapter xxii. 
The Fine Arts in 1999. 

The art of Color-photography perfected in ig2ol 
The world's great artists witness the death-knel. 
of art. The doom of cheap chromos. Nature 
paints her own matchless pictures. The sculp- 
tor's art remains supreme in iggg. No machine 
can ever chisel a Venus de Milo. No substitute 
found for the human voice. 

PAINTING, in 1999, had become a lost 
art, doomed, alas, never to revive. The 
glorious canvases of the old masters were still 
highly treasured. There still existed artists 
who threw their entire souls into beautiful 
paintings, superb creations of their artistic 
minds, true in every detail to nature Al- 
though painting as a high art still existed in 
1999, yet, as a profession and a means of 
obtaining a livelihood, it died very much 
after the manner of wood engraving, when 
the half tone process was perfected and had 
come into general use. 

In the year 191 2, after many struggles 
and disappointments, Prof. Deweyton, of 
the Montpelier, (Vt.) University, perfected 
the process of color-photography. This 
coveted secret, at last, had been wrested 
from nature. For centuries her beauties 
had been admired but never had she con- 
sented to transfer her own original colors 
on photographic plates and canvas. 


When the art of color photography was 

perfected, the world then had little use for 

Ti. a d««!««. easels, palettes and 
The Passing . , r XT ^ , 

painters. Nature be- 

. he came the Artist of the 

Artist. world and none dared to 

dispute her sway. At first it was with a 
feeling of sadness that the world parted 
with the art profession and its devotees, 
men and women who had imparted to can- 
vas the world's historic scenes, the portraits 
of the world's great men, enchanting, noble 
women. The works of these great artists 
had delighted the children of men for many 
centuries. Raphael, Titian, Michael An- 
gelo, Correggio, Guido, and other famous 
artists, had bequeathed their glorious treas- 
ures of art to a grateful world, and even 
color photographic pictures done by nature's 
own hand cannot rob these eminent artists 
of an iota of their fame. It was sad to 
think that after the discovery of color-pho- 
tography great artists would lose their 
prestige, for none can rival nature in her 
own art. 

This new process of Nature painting ren- 
dered to the world an invaluable service by 

,,.. ^. driving out of the mar- 

The Chromo , ° j r i 

ket a flood ol cheap pic- 
Affliction tures and chromos of the 

Subsides. most inferior class ; pic- 

tures that had crept into many homes sim- 
ply because they were cheap. These afflic- 
tions, too often paraded with flash mould- 


ing on the walls of our homes, were driven 
out by color-photography. In 1950 the 
old-style chromos were rare ; they quick- 
ly disappeared from the habitations of men. 
Through the specially constructed cam- 
eras of Prof. Deweyton, life size pictures 

^, , were secured, large land- 

Glorious ' b .- 

scape scenes, magnifi- 
cent marine views, were 
Views. reproduced with the 

exact colors of nature. Superb sunset 
views, in a matchless wealth of color, a rev- 
elry of gold and crimson, were transferred 
to canvas by natural process in 1920. This 
process became the great art triumph of the 
twentieth century. No human hand had ever 
attempted with any hope of success to re- 
produce on canvas the bewitching and mys- 
tic effects of the gloaming. Nature with 
her master hand, dared to reproduce, on 
canvas, this most difficult of all artistic 
studies. Michael Angelo, the supreme chief 
of all living or dead artists, never attempt- 
ed to reproduce on canvas Vesuvius in active 
eruption. No human power could do the 
faintest justice to such a scene and no mas- 
ter of the art ever cared to risk his reputa- 
tion in the attempt. But in color-photo- 
graphs Nature reproduced the exact colors 
of the seething flames as they belched forth 
from the quivering crater. In 1930 a mag- 
nificent picture of Vesuvius, y£tna or 
Stramboli in active eruption could be pur- 
chased for the pitiable sum of $50. So 

1HE FINE ARTS IN I999. 189 

perfectly natural were the volcanic flames 

that the effect was startling. The lava 

~ ,. .. running down the moun- 

Lould Almost . • • 1 .1 

tain side apparently 

Smell threatened to set fire to 

the Sulphur. the very walls of the 

room. A picture of this kind, a feeble 
representation painted by some eminent 
artist, would cost over $10,000. 

The process of color-photography proved 
invaluable in reproducing human features 
and expression. Nothing could exceed the 
perfection the art attained in 1935. Pho- 
tographic studios were crowded with work. 
No skill of man had ever transferred to 
canvas the maiden's blush, that emblem of 
purity, a shade Divine which mantles the 
brow of innocence only. The cameras of 
1 93 5 proved equal to that delicate task. 
The maid caught blushing in color photogra- 
phy blushed on, alas, forever. In detect- 
ing criminals, the new art proved invalua- 
ble. The Rogues' Gallery was soon filled 
with studies in life and deviltry, so natural 
that one's first impulse was to reach out for 
a pair of handcuffs. 

Although painting, in 1999, and long be- 
fore that date, had received a severe blow, 
the sculptor's art remained unchanged. 
The sculptor was still supreme in his do- 
main. No machine had yet been found 
that could take a block of pure Parian mar- 
ble and carve out a Venus de Milo. Na- 
ture had invaded the artist's studio and 


robbed him of an honored profession, but 

nature, great and mighty as she certainly 

is, had not yet, in 1999, found a way to 

fashion a block of cold marble into a thing 

of beauty, an exact image of life. Statuary 

was still regarded in the twentieth century 

as the acme of true art. The sculptor had 

not yet been dethroned ; it is doubtful if he 

ever will be. The new and most ingenious 

machines of the twentieth century met their 

Manila on statuary. No machine can ever 

, . .. be built that will reason 

Limits to ,,. , T , 

or think. It requires 

Inventive thought, judgment and 

uenius. artistic taste to create a 

statue. As the artist beholds a perfect 
model, he becomes thrilled with the love of 
his art. His heart and hands are guided 
by fires of ambition and his work excites 
admiration. The human brain is often du- 
plicated by machinery, but the equal of the 
human heart, with its subtle emotions, 
must ever remain a Sealed Book to cold, 
unfeeling mechanism. 

The same might be said of the human 
voice. In 1999, tnat peerless gift of God 
to man, that wonderful channel through 
which all emotions are expressed, had not 
been uprooted by mechanism. The Pattis, 
Nordicas and Melbas of the twentieth cen- 
tury were still held in high esteem, com- 
manding princely stipends. The domain of 
all mechanical music, however, had been 
invaded to a large extent. Pianos, organs, 


orchestral and metallic instruments, which 
had attained a high degree of perfection in 
the nineteenth century, were generally dis- 
carded in the twentieth century. The ten- 
dency of the age favored mechanical music. 
The automatic musical instruments, which in 
1889 had already attained a certain degree 
of perfection, were greatly improved. In 
the navy cornet bands were discarded and 
were substituted by large musical machines 
that played operas, marches, quicksteps, 
waltzes and patriotic airs with wonderful 
accuracy, with a volume of sound surpass- 
ing the best efforts of efficient brass bands. 
In the army, the brass band always held its 
own. The men who composed the band 
could march and fight, while no automatic 
substitute could be made to do this. 

chapter xxiii. 
Improvements of The Age. 

The advantages of Electrical conveyances. No fire 
departments required and Insurance companies 
lose their grip. Tobacco chewing and spitting 
prohibited in public places. Cigarettes are con- 
demned by law. Moderation in the use of wines. 
Great advancement in medical science. A puri- 
fied stage. Religious toleration becomes more 
universal. Jews give Jerusalem the "marble 

THE changes in our social system that 
signalized the period of 1999 were 
marked and contrasted very favorably with 
the conditions extant in 1899. 

Street noises that rendered city and often 

village life unendurable, in 1899 were en- 

.. , tirely abolished in 1999. 

. , . . , The clattering of horses' 

hoofs became unknown 
Abolished. in city Hfe Milk wagonS) 

enormous furniture vans, the brewery wagon 
with its pyramid of beer kegs, rattling ex- 
press carts, mail delivery wagons and thun- 
dering omnibuses no longer tortured the hu- 
man ear in 1999. Automobiles had sent 
the clattering hoofs to Tophet and electri- 
city, with pneumatic tires, was exclusively 
used in transportation. 

It was a curious sight in 1999 to observe 
the life and animation of rapidly moving, 
yet noiseless, vehicles in city streets. Shout- 



ing, whistling and all loud noises were 
strictly prohibited on all public avenues. 
The jingling of bells, the yells of street 
Arabs, the thunder of wagon wheels over 
pavements and the pandemonium that 
reigned on all streets in 1899 became mem- 
ories of a strange past. 

The black pall of smoke that hovered 
over manufacturing cities and darkened the 

„ lives of all men, had dis- 

navanas , J., , . ., 

appeared, Electricity 

drove smoke back into 
Apiece. Hades and kept it there. 

Manhattan, (formerly New York) the largest 
and grandest city in the world in 1999, was 
no longer troubled in this manner. The 
only smoke that was ever seen in city or 
country life curled up from Havana cigars, 
of the best grades raised on American plan- 
tations in Cuba and retailed in Manhattan 
for one cent apiece. Pipes were occasion- 
ally used but had lost much of their former 
popularity. Workmen and the poorest 
classes could enjoy a fragrant Havana for 
one cent and pipes were no longer used on 
the mere pretence of economy. 

In the 20th century the tobacco chewer's 
life was not an enjoyable one. In many 
States of the Americas, in 1999, notably 
Brazil, East Canada and Argentina, it be- 
came a penal offense to chew tobacco in 
public. In 1999 tobacco chewing was 
everywhere regarded in the United States 
of the Americas in the same light as opium 



smoking. It was considered a filthy prac- 
tice, one that must not be tolerated in 
public. It was regarded as a danger to 
public health for men to spit chewing to- 
bacco on the street walks. Ladies in 1999 
made up their minds that they had got 
through stepping on tobacco quids on the 
streets. Indeed, spitting had been prohib- 
ited in all public places. The habit was filthy 
and dangerous, causing the spread of disease 
germs. In 1980 it frequently happened 
that the city police raided chewing tobacco 
joints and hauled the offenders before court 
for fine. 

But, perhaps the worst form of smoking 
was the diabolical cigarette. In 1899 it 

Arrested was alread y sapping the 

youth of America, filling 
for Smoking u •, , .,, , u 

fe our hospitals with the 
Cigarettes. sick and our State asy _ 

lums with imbeciles. Great fears were 
already entertained in 1899 as to the out- 
come, but public opinion did not realize the 
danger to the national safety until 191 2. 
In 1 92 1 Congress passed a law making the 
sale, importation or manufacture of cigar- 
ettes a felony. Every inducement was 
extended by National and State Legisla- 
tures to encourage the growth of the purest 
Havana and Manila tobaccos. The object 
was to place a good, harmless cigar within 
the reach of everyone and to discourage the 
chewing and cigarette practices. 

In 1999 moderation in the use of wines 


r 95 

and beverages became almost universal. 
Even in the State of Mexico and other 
tropical States of the Americas, drunken- 
ness became almost unknown. In fact, it 
was regarded as a deep disgrace and a penal 
offense to be caught drunk in public. A 
drunken man was regarded in 1999 as a 
moral leper and was isolated from his fel- 
low creatures for a period of one year and 
forever after was debarred from holding 
any public office. The law was sternly 
administered in every case which carried 

The vicious laws of 1899 which allowed 
the government to collect an enormous 

Drunken- revenue 0I \ spirituous 

liquors and permitted 

manufacturers to poison 
Very Rare. their victims with nox j_ 

ous liquids were greatly ameliorated. The 
National government took up the work of 
purification in the matter of manufacturing 
all liquors. A much purer and safer article, 
much less liable to injure one's health and 
to intoxicate, was placed on the market. 
It was recognized that the government 
could not regulate the appetites of people, 
but it determined to regulate the purity of 
the liquors they drank. This wise course 
produced a decided change for the better. 
Drunkenness was reduced to a minimum 
and homes were made happier. Although 
men still "drank" in 1999, none but an 
abject sot ever lost his mental balance and 
disturbed public peace. 

If)6 looking forward. 

In 1999 vast strides of progress had been 

made in medicine and surgery, and disease 

had been eliminated to a very large extent 

from our social system. Science attained a 

complete mastery over the hitherto unknown 

~ . . , field of organisms. Man's 

Triumph of ° ,, 

mastery over these agents 

in marked the greatest stride 

Over Matter. ever mac j e in the con- 
quest of mind over matter. All classes of 
bacteria were held under perfect control. 
In 1999 contagious and infectious diseases 
occurred only in sporadic form. The chief 
ills of life were those attendant upon old 

Specific organisms, namely those of con- 
struction and destruction, were created at 
will in that year, and were made to work 
with certain and perfect results. In this 
manner disease was easily combated. 

Fire departments in the city lost much of 
their old-time importance. In 1999 only 
ten fire stations were required in the great 
metropolis of Manhattan. In 1 899 the pop- 
ulation of New York was 3,500,000 and the 
number of its brave firemen ran up in the 
ten thousands. In 1999 the population of 
Manhattan was nearly 25,000,000 souls, and 
its fire department required only three 
thousand firemen to operate it. The reason 
for this is very simple. In 1899 fire was 
used everywhere ; while in 1999 very few 
houses had any use for that element. Elec- 
tricity had completely abolished fire as a 


domestic agent or motive power. In 1999 

people never ceased to marvel how their 

predecessors got along with so much fire, in 

one form or other, burning in their houses. 

The sufferings of the poor in crowded 

city tenements during the fierce heats of 

summer, with a coal stove in their room, 

v were recalled. The 

er ^. frightful heat took away 

Little Fire a jj ener gy an( j appetite. 

Used. Then the burning kero- 

sene lamps were called to mind. Furnaces 
with roaring fires of coal, wood and oil, gas 
jets, matches, all helped to increase the per- 
centage of danger. Fire departments were 
in great demand in the good old days of 
1899, and insurance companies amassed 
fortunes by the side of which Monte Cristo 
was a mere Lazarus. 

In those days fire not only constantly 
threatened the destruction of property, but 
many thousands of valuable lives were de- 
stroyed every year by that element. In 
1899 women still clung to their long, dan- 
gerous and unhealthy skirts, long dresses 
that impeded their movements and exposed 
them to constant danger from fire. Fearful 
tales on land and sea were told of horrible 
sacrifices by fire. In 1999 all this was ban- 
ished, never to return. Fires were ex- 
tinguished everywhere. A safer and better 
element had taken its place. The Pharsees 
of India were, perhaps, the only people in 
1 999 who still ' ' worshipped " fire. 



Theatres in 1999 were extensively pat- 
ronized, but so rigid were the laws against 
immoral displays that none ventured to 
violate. The cause of morality generally 
had made strides of progress in the 20th 
century. The world grew brighter and bet- 
ter and became more humane. Vice and 
immorality were suppressed, not so much 
by operation and fear of the law but by 
Christianizing methods. As the world grew 
older it became more manifest that crime 
and immorality must make way for purity 
and honesty. Theatrical performances in 
1 999 were more chaste, more attractive and 
entertaining. The exhibitions of nudity, so 
N common in 1899, became 

„ . „,. unknown to the stage in 

Seeley Dinners ,««« t^i *. • •* 

1999. Electricity was 

in 1999. very successfully em- 

ployed in all scenic stage effects. Some 
spectacular performances were beautiful 
visions of fairyland. Public entertainments 
carefully suppressed all that appealed to the 
baser passions. In 1899 our churches and 
theatres were still apart, but in 1999 so 
marked was the purity of the stage and so 
lofty its ideals, that church members were 
not afraid to acknowledge that they attended 
the theatres. 

Churches, on the other hand, became 
more Christianized in 1999. The envy, 
wrath and jealousy which existed between 
the denominations and religions lost much 
of their acrimony in the 20th century. The 


I 99 

hatred and contempt that the Mohammedan 
An Era entertained for the 

of Fraternal Ch . risti *"> had greatly 
sottened. I he Roman 
Love * Catholic, the Greek and 

Protestant Churches, followers of the same 
Saviour, regarded each other with more fra- 
ternal feelings and became more tolerant. 
As education became more generally dif- 
fused, humanity broadened the heart. Child- 
ren in 1 999 could not comprehend the infamy 
of a nation that could perpetrate the horrors 
of the Inquisition under a pretext of serving 
the cause of a gentle Christ. Their minds 
could not understand how in the 17th cen- 
tury both Protestants and Catholics burned, 
pillaged and destroyed one another's proper- 
ty ; burned men, women and children at 
the stake and committed nameless horrors, 
all under a sacriligious pretext of serving a 
Divine Master. These persecutions and 
the unfriendly feelings between opposing 
religions almost disappeared toward the 
close of the 20th century. The acrimony 
of the past was buried to a very large 

In 1899 the leading religions of the world, 
in point of numbers, were Buddhism, 
and the followers of Confucius, who in 
that year numbered 485,000,000 followers. 
Next in force of numbers at the close of the 
nineteenth century ranked the Christians, 
who numbered 454, 729, 1 5 1 . The Moham- 
medans numbered in 1899 about 170,000.- 


ooo, Brahmanists 139,000,000, and Pagans 
or Heathens 220,000,000. 

Christians were by far the most enlight- 
ened, most powerful and progressive re- 

c . . . . ligious element at the 

. close of the nineteenth 

e lg century and were firm 

of the World. be li eV ers in the cause of 
education. Through their influence in the 
twentieth century education became widely 
diffused. Turkey felt the force of the 
movement, and the dense ignorance of its 
population became more enlightened and 
less cruel. In 1999 the Christians of Arme- 
nia were no longer held in bondage. The 
horrible massacres of 1894 which so deeply 
stirred the hearts of all nations were mem- 
ories of the past. The Sublime Porte had 
ordered that education be made compulsory 
between the ages of ten and fifteen years. 
Through English influence the cause of ed- 
ucation was also generally diffused through- 
out Africa. Where education gained a 
foothold superstition was uprooted. 

Christianity made rapid advance in the 
world in 1999, and Christians outnumbered 
all other religious beliefs. The sublime 
gospel of the Cross dominated the human 
family in that year, inspiring more love and 
gentleness among men. The vital force of 
Christianity, perhaps little understood in 
the nineteenth century, became a mighty 
lever for good in the following century. 
At the close of the twentieth century in- 


dications pointed to a general christianizing 
of all peoples of the globe. The three 
leading powers of the world, the United 
States of the Americas, Great Britain and 
Russia, and in fact the whole of Europe, 
except Spain, which country was obliter- 
ated in 1930, as already described, exerted 
a mighty moral force upon the other na- 
tions. Even Japan was rapidly coming 
under the banner of the Cross. 

In 1940 the ancient city of Jerusalem was 
delivered over into the keeping of a Chris- 
tian power. All the territory about that 
ancient city, including the seaport of Jaffa, 
Bethlehem, the Mt. of Olives, and other 
localities made sacred by the Mantle of our 
glorious Saviour while on earth, were trans- 
ferred by the Ottoman government into the 
safe keeping of the German people. 

The Jews never returned to Jerusalem to 
rule again in that city. Centuries of per- 
secution had driven them into every corner 
of the globe and under the protection of 
every flag. They had no use for Jerusalem 
in the twentieth century and nothing was 
farther from their minds than the re-estab- 
lishment of the Jewish hierarchy. Their 
business had long been established all over 
the world and under no consideration could 
they be induced to return to the land of 
their forefathers, merely on a point of sen- 
timent. Should the Messiah ever again re- 
turn to earth, they argued, it mattered little 
whether they were huddled together in 
Jerusalem or scattered over the globe. 

chapter xxiv. 

It was not a complete but only a partial success. 
Certain international questions cannot be ad- 
justed by arbitration. The losses of the Ameri- 
can Civil War. Europe's terrible war l-ecord 
during the nineteenth century. The Great 
American Republic in 1999 has no use for arbi- 

IN the twentieth century many bloody 
wars were averted by the peaceful offices 
of arbitration. The Great Dream of Uni- 
versal peace, however, had not been fully 
realized in 1999. In the political life of all 
nations controversies arise that cannot be 
left for adjudication to arbitration. Were 
it not so all disputations might be entrusted 
to the decision of the arbiter and the world 
would gain immensely by the abolition of 
the savage methods of war. A majority of 
the disputes between nations can be settled 
by arbitration, but not all. No tribunal of 
arbitration could have decided the issue in 
1898 between America and Spain. It was a 
question of tyranny. Spain was determined 

_ „. to maintain a hell at our 

Questions That , ~ , ^, , 

, very doors in Cuba. 1 hat 

Cannot nation could not conquer 

Be Arbitrated. Cuba and had prove d, 

after over four hundred years, her utter in- 
ability to govern that island. In the face 
of wanton persecution, tyranny and merci- 



less outrage perpetrated by Spain, would 
America have been justified in leaving its 
contention to arbitration ? Certainly not. 

When, in 1870, Count Beneditti, openly 
insulted the King of Prussia at Ems and 
aroused the indignation of all German sub- 
jects, what could Prussia do, leave the mat- 
ter to arbitration ? Impossible. After Na- 
poleon escaped from the island of Elba and 
returned to France in 181 5, ought the other 
nations of Europe which he had overrun 
with fire and sword, to have consented to 
arbitration as a means of quieting Europe ? 
Certainly not. When in i860 the Southern 
States of America seceded from the Union, 
declared their right of self government and 
privilege of perpetuating slavery, what trib- 
unal of arbitration could have decided the 
issue between the North and South ? None. 

Human passions and ambitions did not 

change in the twentieth century. Internation- 

,. ~ , , al quarrels arose in the 

It Commanded . \ . ... 

. , . nineteenth century which 

Universal ,, . , t - + + a 

could not be submitted 

Respect. to arbitration and war 

became the final resort. At the same time 
the world's call for arbitration, and the ef- 
forts made to enthrone Peace instead of 
War, never ceased to occupy the minds of 
twentieth century statesmen. The history 
of the world for centuries had been written 
in blood. The enormous standing armies 
of Europe were fast sapping the vitality 
and energy of those nations. Something 



had to be done to avert catastrophe and 
financial ruin and the Czar's call for a Peace 
Congress at the Hague, justly commanded 
the respect of the world. 

War is a dreadful stain upon humanity. 
It is cruel, barbarous. The twentieth cen- 
tury was not equal to the task of entirely 
substituting peace for war, but made great 
progress in that direction. 

In the nineteenth century the North 

spent $4, 800,000,000 during the American 

/- £ ±t- Civil War, and the South 

Cost of the . ' 

spent $2,300,000,000. 
American ^h, , c %.- 

1 he number of casualties 

War. in the volunteer and reg- 
ular armies of the United States during this 
war were as follows : Killed in battle, 
67,056 ; died of wounds, 43,012 ; died of 
disease, 199,720; died from other causes, 
40,154; total number of deaths, 349,944. 
The number of soldiers in the Confederate 
service, who died of wounds or disease, was 
about 133,800. 

The world's plea for arbitration in the 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries was in- 
deed a forceful one and the Peace Confer- 
ence at the Hague in 1899 deserved absolute 
success. It has been estimated that 40, 000, - 
000 human beings perish in war every cen- 
tury. Since the Trojan war (about 3,000 
years ago), it is estimated that 1,000,200,- 
000 men have perished (up to the close of 
the nineteenth century) in battle. The pop- 
ulation of the world in 1899 was placed at 



1,500,000,000. If all who had been killed 
in battle since the Trojan war could be 
ranged on a field and the entire population 
of the world also enumerated, the numbers 
of the killed would nearly equal those of 
the living. 

In the 19th century in no direction was 
so much human energy wasted as in pre- 
paration for war or in the process of 
actual warfare. It was stupendous folly 
and a crime, a blot upon civilization. With 
such terrible figures before them the advo- 
cates of universal peace might well take 
heart at the sight of a Peace Conference, 
gathered in 1.899 to adopt measures to re- 
duce European armaments. During the 
last half of the 19th century the following 
great wars were waged : 

War. Cost. Losses. 

Italian (1859) $300,000,000 45,000 

Austro-Prussian (1866) 330,000,000 45,000 

Crimean, 1,700,000,000 150,000 

Russio-Turkish, 1,000,000,000 225,000 

Franco-Prussian, 2,500,000,000 210,000 

Zulu and Afghan .. 300,000,000 40,000 

American civil war, 7,100,000,000 800,000 

Totals, $13,230,000,000 1,515,000 

These figures are frightful but they rep- 
resent only a fraction of the losses of life 
and treasure through war, during the last 
half of the 19th century. The above fig- 
ures do not include scores of other wars 
that occurred during that period. The 
Chino-Japanese war did not reduce the 
population of the Celestials to any apprecia- 


ble extent but in loss of treasure it proved 
a costly struggle. The war between Spain 
. <, and America, commenc- 

y ing April 21st, and end- 

on,y ing October 26, 1898, 

Half Told. must also be reckoned in 

this list. The ceaseless tribal wars of Asia 
and Africa, also the French colonial wars 
in Madagascar, Tonquin, Siam, and the 
endless struggles between savage races of 
Borneo, Sumatra, the Zulus and head- 
hunters of the Philippine islands must all be 
included in the list of mortality from warfare 
during the last half of the 19th century. 

The plea for arbitration and the cessation 
of war was a noble effort and a just tribute 
to the civilization of the closing days of the 
nineteenth century. America lent her voice 
in the cause of Peace at the Hague Confer- 
ence. In the interests of humanity this was 
the proper course to follow. America at 
this conference represented 75,000,000 of 
the most intelligent, brave and industrious 
people on earth, whose army was a mere 
corporal's guard. 

In the twentieth century, however, the 

great United States of the Americas, with 

its magnificent sweep of 
America .. ft ,. f 

territory extending Irom 

Alaska to Patagonia, and 
Unto Herself. its na ti nal capital built 
on the site of the city of Mexico, had little 
use for arbitration. In 1999 the vast Amer- 
ican Republic had beome a world in itself. 


It had long passed the period when it had 
become necessary to consult other nations 
on international questions and abide by their 
wishes. America in 1999 was a law unto 
herself, and had very little use for arbitra- 
tion in the disposition of her international 

Arbitration answers very well providing 
that the arbiters are just and impartial and 
prove themselves able to arrive at a decision 
in perfect justice and equity. But America 
in the twentieth century, on account of her 
enormous expansion and world-wide com- 
merce, had excited the jealousy as well as 
cupidity of every other civilized nation, with 
the one exception of Great Britain. In any 
court of international arbitration in which 
America might appear either as a plaintiff 
or as a defendant, the chances were largely 
in favor of a decision being rendered against 

America was denied justice in these inter- 
national courts of arbitration. Left to the 

~ decision of European ar- 

fcurope Becomes , . x . r 

biters her case was m- 

Jealous var i a bl y lost. Even in 

of America. , 8g8 Europe ' s jealousy 
was ill-concealed. Germany and France 
would have been glad indeed to have assist- 
ed Spain in taming the Yankee and the rest 
of Europe, England excepted, would have 
applauded their interference. Because of 
England's firm stand Germany and France 
decided that prudence was the better part 

i.ookim; forward. 

of valor, and those two nations declined to 
have their navies blown out of salt water 
by the combined navies of England and 

If, as above evidenced, Europe regarded 
America in 1898 with feelings of envy and 
malice, imagine then the European condi- 
tion of mind towards the great American 
Republic in 1999 when it contained a pop- 
ulation of over 500,000,000 citizens, inclu- 
sive of a territory that represented nearly 
one-fourth of the habitable globe. 

European nations in the twentieth cen- 
tury (always excepting Great Britain) would 
have been very glad, at any time, to attack 
and humble America, but so great was the 
power of our noble Republic in that era 
that even the combined assaults of the 
world could not have accomplished this 

As a natural consequence of this unfriendly 
feeling on the part of Europe, which grew in 
strength as time rolled on, America in the 
twentieth century withdrew from the Inter- 
national Court of Arbitration. America 
became big enough, strong and willing 
enough to take care of herself. In other 
words, throughout the twentieth century, 
Uncle Sam ran his own ranch and had 
things pretty much his own way. 


Improved Social Conditions. 

Kissing prohibited in the twentieth century. The 
curbing G f the tongue. The National punish- 
ment for wife beaters. The passing of the 
tramp. New methods of salutation. Vegeta- 
rians remain true to principle. Horse flesh as an 
article of food. Schools for training housekeep- 
ers. American hotels in 1999 still lead the world. 

KISSING as a fine art was on the wane 
in the twentieth century. In the nine- 
teenth century the Japanese had long ban- 
ished that custom as one dangerous to 
health and as a medium for communicating 
infectious diseases. In that remarkable 
and highly progressive country no kisses, or 
salutation with the lips, are exchanged be- 
tween husband and wife, parent and son, 
brother and sister. 

The custom, without doubt, is an un- 
wholesome one, yet one in vogue for so 
Kissing many centuries, even in 

Strictly the dayS oi the Romans - 

D _...., . that it became a second 

Prohibited. ,„. T iT 

nature. In the nine- 
teenth century one might as well attempt 
to scale Mt. Renier with a ladder as to en- 
deavor to convince the mother of a new 
born babe that kissing is a dangerous habit. 
1 he lover in his rapturous mode expresses 
in a kiss the acme of his devotion. It 
seems cruel to destroy idols before whom 


we have bowed down and offered incense 
during a whole lifetime. Custom, tradition 
and education are hard task-masters. They 
cling to us through life like limpets to a 

Kissing, however, never came under ban 
of the law in the twentieth century, but the 
practice was discontinued on purely hy- 
gienic grounds. The mode of salutation in 
1999 that was regarded as being the most 
tender expression of love, consisted of a 
gentle patting of the cheek. The advanced 
reason of the age broke the barriers of cus- 
tom in this case ; lips were seldom allowed 
to touch lips. A pressure of the hand be- 
came ample compensation for the most ar- 
dent lovers, while the matchless language 
of the eyes left no room for doubt in a 
lover's breast that his love was reciprocated. 

In the twentieth century men began to 

acknowledge the absolute folly of the 

Th cursing habit. If any 

excuse could ever be of- 
Cursing {ered in palliation of this 

Habit. vicious habit it might be 

made in the case of a man whose mind was 
disturbed by angry passions. In an out- 
burst of passion a slight pretext might be 
offered for the vigorous use of unwritten An- 
glo-Saxon. But the twentieth century very 
properly turned its face against the practice 
of verbal profanation. This reprehensible 
habit was made punishable, in every in- 
stance, by a heavy fine and imprisonment. 


In the nineteenth century laws against 
profanity already existed, but they were a 
dead-letter on all of our statute books. In 
those days men might quarrel in public or 
in private ; they might hurl epithets at one 
another by the hour or by the day, so long 
as neither one of the belligerents raised a 
hand against the other, society and law 
took no cognizance of the unhappy occur- 
rence. Men might exchange the vilest ex- 
pressions and fill the air with their suphuri- 
ous. maledictions ; they might insult the 
public ear with a riot of profanation, no 
breach of the peace occurred in the eye 
of the law until blows were given or ex- 

In the twentieth century it was finally 
discovered that the tongue was often a more 
offensive disturber of the peace than a blow 
of the fist. It was then recognized that 
vile expressions, particularly those which 
attacked innocent members of a family, 
were more cruel and cutting than blows de- 
livered by hand or weapon. Society and 
law in the twentieth century determined to 
uproot and severely punish the offending of 
a vile tongue. 

Wife-beaters in 1999 were speedily 
brought to time. These degraded speci- 
mens of humanity finally received their just 
dues on conviction. The lash which the 
State of Delaware wields to such excellent 
advantage in many criminal cases was gen- 
erally regarded as inadequate punishment 


for such brutes. It was felt that wife -beat- 
ers should be made conspicuous examples 
before the community. 

Every town in the Americas, from Alaska 
to Patagonia, was provided with a large 

„ . , . derrick, erected upon a 

Punishment ... ' , , ,t 

solid stone foundation on 

the edge of some body of 

Wife Baaters. water Q n the day and 

hour appointed for the execution of the 
sentence, the culprit was taken from the 
town jail or lock-up by the sheriff of the 
county. A large concourse of citizens 
usually gathered in the locality of the der- 
rick to witness the " water cure " Arriving 
there, the sheriff adjusted two belts around 
the prisoner, one under his arms and the 

„. , other about his loins. 

A First-class „., , ., 

1 he belts were connect- 

ed by a broad strap over 
Cure. ^g |3 ac j <) m ti ie center 

of which was firmly fastened a large hook. 
This hook was fastened to the chain or rope 
of the derrick. Upon a given signal the 
prisoner was hoisted to the top of the arm 
of the derrick, which was then swung over 
the sheet of water. The windlass of the 
derrick was let loose and the prisoner 
plunged, usually a distance of twenty feet, 
into the water. He was then hoisted up 
again, and the dose repeated three more 
times. When the punishment was over 
the prisoner was properly cared for by the 
sheriff and his posse. He was conveyed in 



some vehicle back to the jail, where his 
ducking" suit was removed. Attendants 
were on hand, who rubbed him dry and 
helped him put on his own clothes. He was 
then given refreshment and a cup of strong 
coffee and admonished to go forth and do 

In the by-gone days of the eighteenth 
century, highwaymen, Dick Turpins, Jack 

... , Shepherds and the rob- 

ber element, held high 
an carnival, flourishing in 

Pirates. their plenitude and ze- 

nith. The old stage coach days greatly fav- 
ored the success of their profession. The 
appearance of steam ruined their avocation. 
The same fate befell the pirates of the high 
seas, marine highwaymen who thrived and 
carried on their nefarious trade in the days 
of sailing ships. When steam came into 
general use it became impossible for them 
to ply their trade. A steam pirate ship 
could not very well carry on operations. 
Frequent coaling and repairs to machinery 
soon revealed their identity. 

The highwayman and his confrere, the 
pirate, were children of the 1 8th century. 
The conditions of that period favored their 
existence. They who would pursue the 
highwayman must have the swifter horse, 
otherwise pursuit became futile. The sail- 
ing man-of-war that would overtake the 
• pirate must have a swifter keel or lose the 
race. Rut when came the days of steam 


these marauders by land and sea were driven 
from their lairs. 

These were products of the 18th cen- 
tury, but it was in the 19th century that 
the tramp, a degenerate son of the bold 
thieves above mentioned, first saw the light 
Th of day. The tramp of the 

„ . 19th century, Can exclu- 

Great Amer.can siveexot icof thatera,)was 
ramp. a com p 0un( j mixture of 

loafer and robber. He led a life of leisure. 
The law of that period rather encouraged 
his existence than otherwise. After roam- 
ing over the country during the open sum- 
mer weather, as the first flakes of snow fell, 
the tramp, with the utmost ease, contrived 
to secure a six months' sentence in some 
county jail. Once safely ensconsed under 
the sheriff's wing for the winter months, he 
congratulated himself as a most favored 
A T , mortal. He was sure, 

„ .. above all things, of not 

having any work to do. 
in 1899. That supreme misfortune 

having been averted, the tramp was at peace 
with the world. Work and soap were his 
deadly enemies ; could the jail save him 
from these, come what might, his serenity 
of mind remained undisturbed. He had a 
warm bed, three regular warm meals daily, 
with the privilege of playing cards, smoking 
and reading as suited best his fancy. What 
better could any tramp ask for ? The county 
jail was to him a haven of rest, — a paradise. 



This delightful condition of affairs, how- 
ever, rapidly changed in the 20th century. 
Society grew tired of turning county jails 
into tramp colleges, from which, after a 
very pleasant winter's rest, the tramp grad- 
uated in the spring and was again let loose 
upon the community. Tramps were com- 
pelled to work or starve in our county jails 
long before 19 10. They were given plenty 
of stone to crush under suitable sheds, and 
the product of their labor contributed to 
better roads. After a few years, the new 
law had its effect. The tramp rapidly dis- 
appeared and monuments of stone were 
raised in every county jail to the memory 
of an extinct species. 

The twentieth century method of ex- 
changing salutations in public places was in 
marked contrast with the custom that 
obtained in the nineteenth century. Dur- 
ing the latter period on meeting friends or 
acquaintances in public places, it was a 
custom established from time immemorial, 
when ladies and gentlemen met, for the 
gentleman to uncover by raising his hat. 
N -. - This was a graceful as 

well as a distinct act of 
courtesy. The lady, 
Salutation. however, in nine cases 
out of ten, acknowledged the salutation, by 
merely looking in the direction of the one 
who had just saluted her. The lady occa- 
sionally added a smile in cases that were 
warranted by ties of friendship. These 


courtesies were graceful but in the twen- 
tieth century the ladies were the first to ac- 
knowledge that their method of salutation 
was ambiguous and indefinite. It was not 
as pronounced-and distinctive as the saluta- 
tion accorded them by the sterner sex. Sus- 
picion crept into the public mind that there 
was room for improvement in the exchange 
of salutation on both sides. 

About the period of 1925 a radical 
change was effected. Upon meeting in pub- 
lic places, it was no longer customary for 
the gentleman to uncover, or for the lad}' 
to cast a glance in acknowledgement of his 
salutation. The mode was simplified. 
Ladies and gentlemen saluted one another 
in precisely the same manner. Each one, 
upon approach, raised their right hand in 
military salute, touching the hat, and by a 
quick movement, letting the hand drop to 
the side. This new custom placed both 
sexes upon equal and exact terms. 

Whenever, in the twentieth century, a 
gentleman addressed a lady, after the usual 
military salutation, it was his duty to un- 
cover and hold his hat in his right hand, re- 
gardless of the weather. Failure to do 
this would result in non-recognition on the 
part of the lady. The respect due to the 
fair sex perceptibly increased in the twen- 
tieth century and so must it ever increase 
as the world's civilization advances. 

Man may be classed as being a carniver- 
ous animal. Vegetarians hold a different 



theory. They banish from their tables the 
flesh of beasts or birds that have been killed, 
eschewing meats of all kinds. It is the 
privilege of the vegetarian to live up to the 
dietary standard which he has adopted. 
Two-thirds of the human family take issue 
with the vegetarian on this subject. The 
vast majority are in favor of meats of all 
kinds as an article of food. In the nine- 
teenth, and, in fact, in all the preceding 
centuries, the delicacies of the table most 
highly esteemed were those in which rare 
viands of every variety were included. 

A model nineteenth century table reveled 

in such dishes as turbot a la cardinal, mut- 

A c . . , ton chops, pork cutlets, 

A jX.HtXCLilt'Ck , , 1-1 

lamb, spring chicken, 
selle-de mouton, ham, 
hood. tongue, roast partridge, 

roast duck with sage dressing, turkey and 
cranberry sauce, braized mutton, deviled 
crabs, meat fritters, sausage, cold boiled 
ham. These savory meat dishes invariably 
played leading roles at the tables of rich 
and poor. Vegetables and desserts were re- 
garded as adjuncts to the feast. 

Vegetarians regard such food as alien to 
the human system and unnecessary to its 
sustenance. Added to this the vegetarians 
entertain a sentimental view of the meat- 
food question. They claim that man has 
no right to kill beast, fish, bird or fowl, to 
secure food supplies, and that all flesh food 
should be eliminated from the human sys- 


tem. A vegetarian's table was garnished 
with delightful dishes, such as sliced oranges, 
buttered toast, baked quinces, quaking om- 
elet, shredded wheat biscuits, dates with 
quaker oats, fried hominy, stewed prunes, 
macaroni and cheese, stewed fig with whip- 
ped cream, French-fried potatoes, oyster 
plant and rice muffins. These dishes are 
clean and wholesome, although decidedly 
tame from certain points of view. 

Vegetarians in 1999 were more emphatic 
in their views than their brethren of 1899. 

., . They still enioyed pea- 

Vegetarians , J i-ur-J 

* nut sandwiches, fried 

Refuse to e gg-plant steak, health 

Wear Shoes. crackers, nut biscuits, 
spiced beans and other delicacies dear to 
the hearts of those who have foresworn 
eating the flesh of "suffering, sentient 
things." In 1999 vegetarians refused to 
wear leather shoes. It came hard at first 
but shoes had to be sacrificed to principle. 
They refused to eat meat because it neces- 
sitated the killing of beast or fowl. On 
this account also they refused to wear shoes 
of leather because the beef must be killed 
in order to procure the leather. For the 
same reason vegetarians in 1999 refused to 
wear silk of any kind because its manu- 
facture cost the lives of the dear little worms. 
They also refused, for the same reason, to 
carry alligator skin pocket books. It was 
so wrong to kill the poor alligators. Vege- 
tarians claim that flesh is from ten to 



twenty times more expensive than fruits or 
cereals, and that it is unphilosophical and 
unbusinesslike to pay the larger sum for 
inferior food. Neither justice nor benevo- 
lence can sanction the revolting cruelties 
that are daily perpetrated in order to pam- 
per perverted and unnatural appetites. 
Vegetarians in 1999 were horrified at the 
practices of the nineteenth century, when 
butchers would take innocent little lambs, 
the most harmless and pitiful creatures, and 
cut their throats in the slaughter house. 
The seas of blood that flowed through 
Chicago slaughter pens had no attractions 
for vegetarians. 

In 1999 the world was by no means con- 
verted to any single theory or idea on the 
food question. A delicious cold ham sand- 
wich or slice of turkey with truffles still de- 
lighted the palates of millions in that year. 
The savory hot bird, washed down with a 
cold bottle, still held captive many epicu- 
reans in the closing days of the twentieth 
century. The birds of the air and beasts 
of the field still contributed to the world's 
gastronomic pleasures. In 1999 the vege- 
tarian remained faithful to his creed. 
Plum pudding, peaches in wine, haricots 
vert, and other delicacies held the place of 
honor at their tables. 

But in 1999 the world became more lib- 
eral in its views on the meat-food question. 
In the nineteenth century no argument 
could shake the prejudice existing against 


the consumption of horseflesh. Anyone 

in 1899 who could champion the use of 

— . r, horseflesh and advocate 

The Prejudice , , 

its sale in open market 

* on the same counter as 

Horseflesh. hogs and pou ltry, would 

be regarded in the light of a barbarian or a 
person of unwholesome practice. 

Such is the utter blindness of custom and 
prejudice that in 1899 the daintiest maiden, 
who might faint at the sight of a mouse, 
would occasionally smell the stench of a 
pig-sty, yet, without the least compunction, 
would sit at table and enjoy a pork 
chop, pork stew, pork roast, in fact pork in 
any form. At the mere mention of a horse 
roast or horse stew, the same delicate 
young lady would manifest her disdain, and 
if such dishes were set before her, her in- 
dignation might turn into riot. This was 
in 1899. 

In 1999 people acquired more "horse 

sense." Education, in time, broke down 

rt the barriers of pure preju- 

_, „ dice and senseless cus • 

Than Hogs or tQm In that year Jt be _ 

Chickens. came recognized and 

fully acknowledged that the cleanest mem- 
ber of the animal kingdom, the horse, was 
fit food for human beings who had the 
strength of stomach to eat the hog, one of 
the filthiest, filth-devouring animals known 
to man, an animal whose flesh was regard- 
ed with horror by many branches of the 


human family, animals into which our 
Savior did not hesitate to cast devils. In 
1999 it was the universal belief that people 
who could stomach pork and take their 
chances in contracting trichinae, could well 
afford to digest the clean, wholesome flesh 
of horses. No animal has any cleaner 
habits, or more wholesome food than the 
horse. Such is custom, habit and preju- 
dice. If our ancestors had taught us from 
the days of the Caesars to eat horse flesh 
and to shun pork and poultry, it is more 
than probable that a man caught eating the 
latter would have been driven from any 
community as a disgrace to his kind. 

Prejudice and custom are hard task mas- 
ters. In 1925 it became a custom to eat 
F . raw fish. The fish in 

^ such cases were carefully 

Kaw cleaned before serving. 

Fish. Yhe head, entrails and 

other parts were removed and the raw flesh 
was served with salt and pepper. Even 
this simple process required an education. 
Many with capricious stomachs revolted at 
the treatment. They could not digest raw 
fish that had been killed and nicely cleaned 
before eating, but they would readily eat 
any quantity of raw oysters from the shell, 
also clams, and eat them while the bivalves 
were still alive. 

The "servant question " reached a very 
satisfactory solution long before 1999. As 
early as 1907, State Normal schools to 


teach the culinary art and to educate serv- 
ants were instituted. In the nineteenth 
century the servant class in America was 
the hoodoo of the housekeeper and home- 
maker. Thousands of young women in 1 899, 
without the slightest knowledge or qualifica- 
tions as housekeepers, entered into matri- 
mony. Unable to cook a loaf of bread or 
make a simple biscuit, hardly knowing the 
_ difference between hot 

and cold water, these 
Very "Lame zealous but inexperienced 
Cooks. wives suddenly discov- 

ered themselves in charge of a household 
and all its responsibilities. In this unhappy 
condition they relied upon hired help to do 
the work. In many instances the servant 
knew as little about cooking as her newly 
wedded mistress. It was a case of ' ' the 
blind leading the blind," and much unhap- 
piness resulted. 

Early in the 20th century public exigen- 
cies demanded a radical change. The ser- 
vant question advanced to the front. The 
dignity of her position was raised in the 
social scale. The backward civilization of 
1899 treated the servant as a drudge or 
menial. Long hours of service, from early 
morn till late at night, were imposed upon 
her, while her wages were, slender. In the 
country her life was more endurable because 
she was often treated as a member of the 
family. In cities, however, her lot was an 
unhappy one. The servant plodded along 



in her solitary work, often busy and at work 
fifteen hours every day. Even in free-born, 
liberty-loving America the servant in 1899 
was made to regard herself as an inferior 

It was in this chaotic condition of affairs 
that schools for the instruction of house- 
keepers were opened and assisted by large 
annuities from the State. Before 1950 every 
town in the several States throughout the 
Americas boasted of its State Cooking 

- . . c . , School. These schools 
State Schools , , 

became very popular 111 

the Central American 
Cooking. states such as Mexico, 

San Salvador, Costa Rica, Guatemala, as 
well as in the southern States of Brazil, Ar- 
gentina, Bolivia, Ecuador and others of that 
group of the American Union. As a result 
of this wise policy the fame and laurels of 
French cookery were transferred to our 
American culinary artists. Not even the 
famed cooks of China could equal the skill 
of the instructed and trained American 
cooks. No servant could get a situation as 
cook in 1999 unless they could produce a 
diploma from a State School of Cookery. 
They demanded more pay and were allowed 
to work only eight hours per day. As a 
result of having skilled housekeepers, homes 
were rendered better and happier. 

In 1999 America still remained the land 
of model hotels. In the 19th century the 
fame of Americans for maintaining the best 


conducted and most palatial hostelries was 
already world-wide. Our city palace-hotels 
had no rivals in the world worthy of the 
name. In the twentieth century their en- 
viable fame in this line continued to in- 
crease. Chicago and Manhattan still main- 
tained their ancient rivalry in the hotel 
business. Many of the palace hotels of 1999 
had walls built with opaque, rock face glass 
in the most attractive styles of architecture. 
From a distance they resembled fairy pala- 
ces. Marble and brick were occasionally 
employed in construction but glass came 
into high favor as being imperishable as 
well as highly ornamental. The old saying 
that " those who live in glass houses should 
not throw stones," answered very well in 
the 19th century, when glass houses, such 
as conservatories, were exceedingly fragile 
structures. In the 20th century no struc- 
tures could be more durable than these 
hotels with glass walls, built with blocks of 
great thickness and in every color of the 
prism. They were fire-proof for the simple 
reason that no one had any use for fire in 
any hotel or public building in 1999. Elec- 
tricity was employed to the exclusion of all 
other agencies for heating and lighting, as 
well as for motive power. 

chapter xxvi. 
The Negro Question Settled 

Negroes in 1999 are transferred to their new reserva- 
tion and permanent home in the State of Vene- 
zuela. The animosities between whites and 
blacks still existed in 1925. The negro a very 
costly importation. Never ought to have left 
Africa. In i960 government lands are bought 
for the black race and their home in Venezuela 
becomes a prosperous and a happy one. The 
satisfactory solution of a vexed problem. 

IN 1999 the negro problem no longer 
troubled the North American States. 
The absorption of the Central and South 
American Republics into the great American 
Union, had at last vouchsafed the earnestly 
prayed for outlet for the troublesome Ethi- 
opians. The man who was guilty of making- 
trie first importation of negroes into the 
American Republic can never hope to rest 
comfortably in the great hereafter. The 
negro during the last half of the nineteenth 
century proved a black cloud in social and 
political America. A stupendous war was 
waged in his behalf. Years after the close 
of the war he still remained a source of 
bitter hatred and constant bloodshed. South 
of Mason and Dixon's line the war of the 
. . .. races raged furiously for 

. nearly sixty years after 

" Burni "£ the close of the Civil War 
Question." in l865 The whites 

despised, while the blacks detested. In 


1899 Negroism was in fact, as well as in 
metaphor, a burning question. In 1925 
mention was still frequently made of the 
burning of the negro Sam Hose, near Pal- 
metto, in Georgia. Whenever the slightest 
pretext offered itself, negroes were lynched 
or burned alive at the stake. On the other 
hand these cruelties upon their race were 
naturally resented by the blacks, who lost 
no opportunity to make reprisals. 

The negro proved a very costly luxury, a 
profound study in black, during the last half 
of the nineteenth century. Mainly on his 
account a Titanic struggle was waged in the 
sixties, a continent was torn asunder, 
800,000 men killed and a debt of $7,100,- 
000,000 saddled on America, and in the 
opening days of the twentieth century, the 
negro was still a thorn in the nation's side. 
a c+ h The negro found his way 

into America only after 
in the mild race of Indians 

Black. discovered by Columbus 

had been exterminated under the lash and 
torch of the Spaniard. When the harmless 
and gentle race of beings who inhabited the 
isles of the Caribbean sea had vanished be- 
fore Spanish tyranny, then all eyes 
turned to Africa as the base of supplies for 
menials, hewers of wood and drawers of 
water. The docile nature of the negro 
rendered him available for purposes of serf- 
dom. He proved submissive and obedient, 
which are qualities of excellence in the re- 


lations existing between master and slave. 
The negro, without doubt, is gifted with a 
high order of intelligence and is capable of 
appreciating all the advantages of a 
superior education. It is doubtful, how- 
ever, if the race will ever become promi- 
nent in the field of art and sciences. With 
his amiable and submissive tendencies the 
negro is menial in his qualifications. For 
long centuries past he has been " a servant 
of servants" in his native land and his po- 
N f v sition still remains un- 

changed. Had he the 
lerce, fierce and indomitable 

Only Humble. love of freedom 

which characterizes the North American 
Indian, the chains of slavery never would 
have blotted the fair name of America. 
His introduction into this hemisphere has 
proved a colossal blunder, a misfortune 
alike to both races. 

History will applaud the wisdom of Amer- 
ican statesmanship that emancipated the 
slave. No matter what may be his short- 
comings — or how inferior his position in 
the scale of civilization, slavery of the 
negro cannot for one moment be tolerated 
under the great American flag, the emblem 
of freedom for all peoples of this earth. 
The flag, however, cannot guarantee his so- 
cial status. From this point of view, the 
fact cannot be denied that the presence of 
the negro in North America is undesirable. 
In communities where his vote prepon- 


derates there will always be friction with 
the whites. Whites will never submit to 
the dictation of the black element. The 
swarthy son of Ham was never permitted 
in the twentieth century to dominate. The 
high white forehead cannot be ruled by the 
low black one. Not in centuries could this 
be accomplished, in fact, never. 

The unquenchable hatred existing in the 
South found expression in frequent lynch- 
ings of negros, burnings and other barbar- 
ities. These acts of violence were deplor- 
able, and even in 1950 the burning of Sam 
Hose in 1899 at Newman, Georgia, was 
constantly referred to. In justice, however, 
to the South, it must be said, that these 
lynchings were perpetrated as measures of 

The races could not assimilate. Misce- 
genation was regarded in the twentieth cen- 
tury, as well as in the nineteenth, as an un- 
pardonable crime. 

In 1925 the racial war between whites 

and blacks continued unabated, and would 

„ have still been in force 

|^{3t "J| C* £± 

in 1999 if the only one 
possible relief had not 
Sight. come at last to the res- 

cue. In the year last mentioned the bulk of 
the black population disappeared from the 
North American States. The accession of 
the Central and South American Republics 
into the great American Union afforded the 
only possible solution to the vexed problem. 


In i960, just one hundred years after the 
Sumpter episode, another important move- 
ment was inaugurated in behalf of the 
blacks. People commenced to realize that 
the negro was an utterly alien race ; that 
when they landed here America gained 
nothing, while Africa must have lost heavily 
through their transfer into the new world. 
The proposition to transfer the negro pop- 
ulation to the Central and Southern Ameri- 
can States was agitated in that year. The 
transfer of Washington as the seat of our 
national government from the District of 
Columbia to the City of Mexico had the 
effect of drawing a strong tide of American 
emigration into the State of Mexico, and 
into the Southern States of Brazil and Ven- 
ezuela as well. In 1999 Americans spoke 
of Colombia and Bolivar merely as South- 
ern States of the Union. The vast and 
fertile lands in those States did not escape 
the attention of settlers. The idea of 
transferring the entire negro population 
from the Northern States of Florida, 
Georgia, Kentucky, Alabama, Louisiana, 
Virginia and the Carolinas to the Southern 
States of Brazil and Veneuzela was regard- 
ed as being a good one. The proposed 
measure proved a very popular one, partic- 
ularly among the Gulf States. They were 
ready to make any sacrifice to be rid of 
their black neighbors. 

In 1975 a bill passed through Congress 
appropriating a sum of $58,000,000 for the 


purchase of three northern provinces in 

the State of Venezuela, namely, Zarmora, 

VI c Bermudez and Miranda, 

No Snowstorms , , , ,, ' 

bounded on the north 

by the Atlantic Ocean 
That Way. and on the south by 

the Orinoco River. It was generally con- 
ceded that the negro would feel more at 
home in a tropical climate. The three 
provinces named lie between the eighth and 
tenth degrees of north latitude, and there 
was no possible danger that these emigrants 
would ever get caught in a snowstorm on 
the plains of Venezuela. The northern 
States of the Union were determined to get 
rid of the entire race, if money ever could 
effect that purpose. 

The negroes readily assented to the 
proposition and were heartily in favor of 

Were Pleased l ?™ n S a Sectio " of * e 
American Republic 

wl which has been the scene 

the Change. of so much su ff er { n g to 

them, as well as their ancestors. They 
were elated over the prospect of emigrating 
to the State of Venezuela, where such a 
fine reservation had been purchased for 
them by enactment of Congress. They 
realized that in the State of Venezuela they 
would no longer be harrassed by their white 
neighbors and the old slave-owning element, 
and upon the vast pastoral plains of the 
Zarmora and Miranda provinces they would 
till their own soil, own the land and enjoy 


each other's exclusive society. Even Bos- 
ton, in 1975, applauded the movement as 
being a philanthropic one, calculated to in- 
crease the well being of the negro. The 
brainy men of Boston argued that reserva- 
tions had been frequently purchased for the 
use of Indians, and there was no good 
reason why one should not be purchased 
for the use of the American negro. 

In this manner the vexed negro question 
was finally settled. The States south of 
Mason and Dixon's line became more con- 
tented. The negro reservation in Venezu- 
ela thrived well. The broad pastoral 
plains, well watered by branches of the 
Orinoco, abounding in rich tropical grasses, 
were admirably adapted to the raising of 
cattle, sheep and goats. Horses were 
raised in 1975 for food supplies alone. The 
negro farmer invested in sugar cane, cotton, 
indigo and banana farms. The tropical 
forests yielded much wealth, such as India 
rubber, tonka beans, copaiba and vanilla, 
while the mineral products of Venezuela 
proved rich and varied. 

chapter xxvii. 

IN setting forth at length the glorious 
achievements of the twentieth century, 
the Author has no desire to rob our now 
closing nineteenth century of one iota of its 
brilliantly earned laurels. The achieve- 
ments of the nineteenth century will grow 
to the last syllable of recorded time. Their 
imprints upon the historj' of man is indel- 
ible and shall be linked in the chains of 

In the field of scientific discovery the 
nineteenth century has no peer in all the 
preceding ages. It starj,ds forth a giant 
whose achievements in the cause of science, 
liberty, education and humanity outweigh 
the combined products of all eras from the 
birth of Christ. 

Newton's discovery of gravitation must 
ever memorize the seventeenth century in 
the annals of men, but the genius of the 
nineteenth century has produced its equal 
in the correlation and conservation of 
forces, the widest generalization that the 
human mind has yet attained. 

The telescope of the eighteenth century 
is overbalanced by the spectroscope of the 
nineteenth, telling us of the composition, 
rate of speed of myriads of suns. The 



electric telegraph, the telephone, the phono- 
graph, wireless telegraphy, and the Roentgen 
rays are all children of the nineteenth 

The vast doctrine of organic evolution, 
the periodic law of chemistry, the molecu- 
lar theory of gases, Kelvin's vortex theory 
of matter, are all priceless jewels in the 
crown of the nineteenth century. To these 
we must add in the nineteenth century pha- 
lanx the magnificent discovery of anaesthetics 
and antisceptic surgery, the wonderful 
mobilization of man through the medium 
of steam and electricity by land and sea. 

Let us give to the nineteenth century the 
full measure of its magnificent conquests in 
the arts and sciences. But, to-day, we 
stand at the threshold of the twentieth cen- 
tury, in which, with its legacy of nineteenth 
century genius, still greater and more sweep- 
ing results will be attained. Vast fields of 
scientific research remain unexplored. Proud 
science must to-day bend her knee and con- 
fess ignorance in many problems of the most 
simple character. The absolute command 
of Mind over Matter calls for herculean 
strides of progress before its sway be undis- 

The twentieth century, however, will pre- 
eminently outrank all preceding eras in the 
measure of liberty accorded to the peoples 
of the universe, and, in the foremost rank, 
as a pillar of fire by night and a cloud by 
day, the leadership of great, broad America 



will be followed by the nations of the 
world . 

The Supreme Ruler of the universe, who 
holds this globe in the hollow of His Hand, 
has marked out the line this nation must 
follow and our duty must be done. 

America is destined to become the Light 
of the World. 

With her grand Constitution for guide 
and compass, her boundaries will extend 
until her banner of true freedom and liberty 
shall spread its folds and protect every 
nation in the Western Hemisphere, gather- 
ing them into one flock and one mighty 

In the year of grace, 1999, the light of 
God's sun will reveal to the admiring gaze 
of the World, the noblest creation of Man, 
— a United America, the law giver unto the 
nations of the earth, a mighty power that 
shall dictate peace and banish war and 
make True Freedom ring throughout the